The soft winter wheat (<i>Triticum aestivum</i> L.) breeding for extra-strong baking quality identification and development
Keywords:winter bread wheat, bread making properties, identification of genotypes, breeding for quality
Purpose. To work out the theoretical principles of soft winter wheat breeding for grain baking quality improvement up to the extra-strong level and initial varieties breeding for germoplasm development.
Methods. Interspecies hybridization, field tests, laboratory baking quality test, analysis.
Results. Rising yields and better baking quality of the soft winter wheat varieties were achieved as a result of varieties replacement on the South Ukraine. Winter wheat specific response to the different dose of nitrogen fertilizer application has been a characteristic feature of the different variety types (tall extensive, mild intensive, semi half intensive, dwarf high intensive). It demonstrated increased productivity and also changes in gluten characteristics – tenacity, extensibility and elasticity. On the base of these data a new approach to the bread winter wheat varieties development with extra-strong baking quality characteristics was offered. Criteria for the extra-strong varieties group and official introduction of this group are proposed for consideration. Effectiveness and ways of extra-strong genotypes selection among hybrid population of high baking quality were under research.
Conclusions. The main criteria for determining selection of extra-strong bread winter wheat varieties are the following: grain protein content (no less than 14%); alveograph value – 500 units and higher; optimal ratio of gluten characteristics – tenacity/extensibility ~1; certain biochemical markers of genetic quality level and resistance to sprouting. The breeding methodology of extra-strong genotypes has certain specific nature: reserve proteins electrophoreses for identification of alleles with positive effect on quality indices; involving to hybridization winter and spring types as genetic sources of high baking quality; change specific environment conditions to select extra-strong genotypes on different breeding stages.
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