Adaptive capacity of different potato varieties under the conditions of the Right-Bank Polissia of Ukraine
Keywords:potato, varieties, yield, coefficient of adaptability, general and specific adaptability, stability
Purpose. To study the adaptive ability and to determine the main criteria for adaptability assessment of potato varieties selected at the Institute for Potato Research of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences under the conditions of Ukrainian Right-Bank Polissia for use in seed potato production.
Methods. Ten potato varieties of different maturity groups were examined in field conditions. The productive potential was analyzed by the yield indicator to determine the general specific adaptive response. The coefficient of adaptability (CA) for each variety was calculated as the ratio of productivity in the year of cultivation to the average yield of all the varieties under study.
Results. In the years of research (2015–2017), almost all varieties had their CA equal 1.0 and above, which indicated their high adaptive capacity to the soil-climatic zone of growing under variable weather conditions. In particular, ‘Lietana’ variety had its annual CA varied within the range of 1.06–1.24 at the yield of 13.3–29.8 t/ha, ‘Hurman’ 1.0–1.02 and 11.6–25.5 t/ha, ‘Sluch’ 0.96–1.13 and 13.1–24.6 t/ha, ‘Strumok’ 0.98–1.09 and 12.3–26.1 t/ha, ‘Zlahoda’ 0.98–1.09 and 11.7–26.2 t/ha, ‘Partner’ 0.96–1.25 and 11.1–29.9 t/ha, respectively. The high general adaptive capacity and increased yield (compared to the long-term average variety index of 20.2 t/ha) was marked by ‘Lietana’ (absolute CA of 1.15 and yield increase of 3.0 t/ha), ‘Partner’ (1.10 and 2.0 t/ha), ‘Kniahynia’ (1.05 and 1.1 t/ha), ‘Feia’ (1.09 and 0.8 t/ha), ‘Strumok’ (1.04 and 0.8 t/ha), ‘Zlahoda’ (1.03 and 0.6 t/ha), and ‘Sluch’ (1.02 and 0.4 t/ha). The most expressed positive response to the favourable growing conditions and realization of its genetic potential (i.e. high yield) was typical of ‘Lietana’, ‘Partner’, and ‘Kniahynia’ varieties, which are attributed to the varieties with a specific adaptability. In particular, in the favourable for weather conditions years (2016 and 2017), the yield increase of these varieties to the average yield of all the varieties (26.6 and 25.1 t/ha, respectively) was as follows: in ‘Lietana’ 1.5–2.3 t/ha, ‘Partner’ 0.4–3.3 t/ha, ‘Kniahynia’ 0.7–1.7 t/ha. Thus, the specific adaptive ability of a variety is more evident at a high value of the average yield of all the varieties.
Conclusions. The use of high adaptable potato varieties for cultivation in certain climatic zones will allow increasing production of high-quality seed material for variety rotation. These varieties for the conditions of Ukrainian Right-Bank Polissia include ‘Lietana’, ‘Partner’, ‘Kniahynia’, ‘Zlahoda’, ‘Feia’, ‘Sluch’, ‘Strumok’, ‘Ariia’, and ‘Hurman’.
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