Analysis of varietal resources of rye (<i>Secale cereale</i> L.) in the State Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine
Keywords:variety, yield, protein content, plant height, vegetation period
Purpose. Analysis of winter rye varietal resources formation for Ukrainian producers.
Results. Rye varieties (Secale cereale L.) were analyzed for a number of economically valuable traits and resistance to abiotic factors. According to the yield data in the zones of Steppe, Forest-Steppe and Polissia, one can see that the variety of foreign selection occupies the leading place. The analyzed cultivars are early maturing, what allows to get crops in a shorter time. The State Register of Plant Varieties includes plants which were 100–140 cm in height. The mass of 1000 grains of all analyzed varieties was 32–34 g. The protein content in grains of varieties ranged from 9 to 12%. High rates of resistance to abiotic factors, such as droughts, and undesirable events like lodging and shedding, allow growing these varieties in all soil-climatic zones on the territory of Ukraine. It is worth noting that the varieties have a high resistance to powdery mildew and snow mold. The State Register of Plant Varieties includes 43 varieties of winter rye as of August 10, 2018. Varieties that are listed in the State Register of Plant Varieties suitable for distribution in Ukraine have high rates of resistance to abiotic factors, what is the basis for their inclusion in the Registry.
Conclusions. A detailed study and analysis of the resistance of plant varieties to stress factors allows us to assess them thoroughly. In addition to the assessment of frost and winter resistance, drought and heat resistance of field crops, it is necessary to assess the cold resistance, resistance to winter thaws, asphyxiation, ice crust, rotting and other adverse factors. Such analysis will allow a better description of new varieties and the selection of those that in addition to high yields, are resistant to abiotic factors. In climate changes it will allow obtaining high yields of winter rye.
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