Peculiarities of growth and development of soybean varieties as affected by components of growing technology
Keywords:soybean, organic fertilizers, plant growth regulators, water retaining agent, grain yield, grain quality indicators, weather conditions during a growing season, water availability
Purpose. Identification of soybean growth and development peculiarities as affected by the application of organic fertilizer, plant growth regulators and water retaining agent under the conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
Methods. The study involved soybean varieties ‘Ustia’, ‘Kano’ and ‘Hieba’. A month before sowing soybean, water retaining agent (hydrogel Aquasorb) was introduced in the zone of the future row as 10-cm strips at a dose of 300 kg/ha. Organic fertilizer Parostok (grade 20) was applied twice: at the 3–5 leaf stage and at the 9–11 leaf stage. Growth regulators Vermystym-D and Agrostymulin were introduced at the budding stage.
Results. It was found that the assimilation surface (m2/ha) of ‘Ustia’ crops in the treatments without hydrogel at the flowering stage was 38,200, while in the treatment with hydrogel it made up 43,600. In ‘Kano’, application of organic fertilizer ensured a leaf surface of 38,600 m2/ha in the treatment without hydrogel and 45,800 with hydrogel. Similar patterns were recorded in ‘Hieba’: 39,000 and 44,900, respectively. Organic fertilization of ‘Kano’ stands contributed to the formation of an assimilation surface of 38,600 in the treatment without hydrogel and 45,800 with hydrogel. ‘Hieba’ demonstrated similar patterns: 39,000 and 44,900, respectively. Application of organic fertilizer allowed to increase the net productivity of photosynthesis (g/m2 of dry matter per day) in all the varieties under study: 0.73 in ‘Ustia’ in the treatment without hydrogel (0.68 in the control treatment), 1.00 in ‘Kano’ (0.92 in the control treatment) and 0.62 in ‘Hieba’ (0.46 in the control treatment).
Conclusions. On average for the years of the experiment, plants of ‘Ustia’ variety formed 5.6–5.7 g of seeds per plant. Both ‘Kano’ and ‘Ustia’ formed 8.6 g of seeds per plant when using growth regulator Vermystym-D on the background of fertilizer Parostok and 8.7 g of seeds per plant on the background of using hydrogel Aquasorb. Top dressing with growth regulator Agrostymulin ensured individual plant productivity at the level of 8.7 and 8.5 g of seeds per plant, respectively.
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