Adaptability of potato varieties to soil-climatic conditions of the Polissia and Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine
Keywords:potatoes, varieties, yield, weather conditions, adaptability, coefficient of adaptability, stability
Purpose. To define the main criteria for adaptability and determine the adaptive capacity of different varieties of potatoes tested in Polissia and Forest-Steppe of Ukraine for use in seed production.
Methods. The productive potential of potato varieties to determine overall species adaptability was analyzed in terms of yield. For this purpose, the coefficient of adaptability of varieties (CA) was used determined by their yield in the year of cultivation in ratio to the average yield of the year.
Results. Over the years of research (2014–2016), under similar conditions of cultivation, the varieties responded in different ways to conditions of the environment in relation to the year of testing. The overall CA of 1.0 and higher indicates increased adaptability of the variety in the soil and climatic conditions of the growing area to changes in weather conditions during the growing season. In particular, in Polissia these are ‘Esmi’ (CA 1.12), ‘Catania’ (CA 1.06), ‘Constans’ (CA 1.03); in the Forest-Steppe – ‘Esmi’ (CA 1.16), ‘Catania’ (CA 1.12), ‘Constans’ (CA 1.00). Specific adaptive ability of varieties is manifested in high average variety yields in years favorable by weather conditions for potato cultivating. The increase in the yield of such varieties in Polissia was 0.4–1.9 t/ha, in the Forest-Steppe – 0.7–2.8 t/ha. ‘Esmi’, ‘Catania’, ‘Yavir’, ‘Constans’ belong to such varieties in Polissia, ‘Esmi’, ‘Catania’, and ‘Constans’ – in the Forest-Steppe.
Conclusions. The use the coefficient of adaptability allows determining the productive capacity of a variety in specific soil and climatic conditions. The cultivation of potato varieties with increased adaptability is a significant factor in increasing the production of high-yielding potato varieties, primarily seed material of high categories for varieties rotation and replacement. In particular, according to research results, such varieties of potatoes in Polissia and Forest-Steppe conditions are ‘Esmi’, ‘Catania’ and ‘Constans’.
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