Features of the formation of the market of the common grape vine (Vitis vinifera L.) national varietal resources
Keywords:the common grape vine, variety, clone, yield, bunch, berry, direction of use, phenotype, identification, commodity
Purpose. Reveal the peculiarities of the formation of national varietal resources of grapes, considering current state of the market, needs of consumers, problems and prospects of the viticulture industry in Ukraine.
Results. The monitoring of the national varietal resources of the common grape vine in the chronology of the formation of a well-known varieties collection used both for food purposes and in the further breeding process. As of the beginning of 2019, 51 grape varieties of the common grape vine are included in the State Register of Plant Varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine. In recent years, there has been a tendency to a decrease in the number of new varieties, reduction in the total area of vineyards and young plantings. Technical varieties of the crop dominate in the Register of plant varieties of Ukraine; the assortment of the table grapes and universal groups needs to be expanded. The largest share among the common varieties in Ukraine is occupied by ones of domestic breeding. The results of monitoring of renewal dynamics of the common grape vine varieties in the State Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine over the past five years indicate a negative trend: 2013 – 11 varieties, 2015 – two, 2018 – one variety. Therefore, the issues of the formation of national varietal resources of grapes are relevant and require a scientific approach to the breeding process, the state scientific and technical examination of the application for a variety of plants and their commercial circulation. New varieties of the common grape vine are included in the State Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine based on the results of the state scientific and technical expertise on the plant variety; it provides for the establishment of criteria for distinctness, uniformity and stability using the morphological description of the identification signs of vegetative and generative organs of grapes and the determination of economically valuable indicators of new varieties.
Conclusions. The total number of the common grape vine varieties in Ukraine for the period 2015–2018 decreased, due to the low level of applications for new varieties of both domestic and foreign breeding. The search for modern methods and directions of breeding, the use of new methods for crop varieties and clones identification remains a reserve for expanding the common grape vine assortment
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