DOI: https://doi.org/10.21498/2518-1017.16.1.2020.201340

Characteristics of the biochemical composition of fruits of Malus domestica Borkh. new varieties

І. В. Гончаровська, С. В. Клименко, В. В. Кузнецов

Abstract


Purpose. To determine the content of biochemical compounds in fruits of M. domestica Borkh. varietal samples, select the most promising ones for use in further breeding, and recommend for use in various directions, given the biochemical complex of signs, taste and marketability of the fruit.

Methods. We used generally accepted methods for determining the biochemical composition of fruits (soluble so­lids (SSR) according to GOST (State Standard System) 29030-91, total sugars according to GOST 8756-13.87; polyphenol composition according to the method of L. I. Vigorov (1968), vitamin C according to the method of A I. Ermakov (1972); tit­rated acids – according to GOST 25555.0-82).

Results. Nine cultivars of apple trees were analyzed for the biochemical composition of fruits, namely the apple tree cultivar ‘Vydubytska Plakucha’ (‘V. p.’) and various hybrids created on its basis from the collection of the fruit plant acclimatization department of the M. M. Hryshko National Botanical Gardens of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Selected forms are sources of 1–5 important biochemical characteristics (solids content, glucose, sugars, ascorbic acid, titratable acid) and promising for use in breeding. According to the dry matter content – the lowest rate was found in hybrid ‘V. p.’ × ‘Renet Symyrenko’ (16.68%), the highest in the hybrid – ‘V. p.’ × ‘Renet Oranzhevyi Coksa’ (22.87%), rates of ascorbic acid content varied within (6.0–12.25 mg%), total sugars (10.37–18.23), acids (0.74–1,67 respectively). The most interesting for introduction and breeding are hybrids with a high content of biochemical parameters, namely: ‘V. p.’ × ‘Renet Oranzhevyi Coksa’, ‘V. p.’ × ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘V. p.’ × ‘Parmen Zymovyi Zolotyi’.

Conclusions. The content of the biochemical composition of the fruits, taste and marketability were characterized, and varietal samples of hybrids of the apple tree ‘Vydubytska Plakucha’ were distributed in the directions of use in order to improve the quality of life of the population. According to the biochemical indicators of the cluster analysis of the studied apple hybrids, close relationships were found between the three groups necessary in the future for breeding when selecting parental forms for an improved biochemical composition of the fruit (including hybrids ‘V. p.’ × ‘Renet Oranzhevyi Coksa’, ‘V. p.’ × ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘V. p.’ × ‘Parmen Zymovyi Zolotyi’, titrated acid hybrids ‘V. p.’ × ‘Starkrimson’, ‘V. p.’ × ‘Parmen Zymovyi Zolotyi’ and ‘V. p.’ × ‘Renet Symyrenko’, tannins hybrids ‘V. p.’ × ‘Slava Peremozhtsiam’ and ‘V. p.’ × ‘Starkrimson’); and to expand the assortment of apple trees according to the planned commercial signs. Hybrids of the apple-tree cultivar ‘Vydubytska Plakucha’, created in the NBG using old and valuable modern apple-tree cultivars, indicate the promise of producing high-yielding, large-fruited varieties with a high content of biologically active substances


Keywords


Malus; apple tree; cultivar ‘Vydubytska Plakucha’; hybrids; chemical composition of fruits

References


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DOI: 10.21498/2518-1017

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