Features of the morphological structure of plants and biochemical properties of introduced and domestic varieties of Cannabis sativa L.
Keywords:Cannabis sativa L., domestic and introduced varieties, biological and morphological features, cannabinoids (CBD, THC, CBN)
Purpose. Identifying the features of the seasonal growth rhythm, development of the plants, morphological and biological differences in monoecious introduced and domestic varieties of Cannabis sativa L. in the North-east region of Ukraine.
Methods. The research was conducted from 2014 till 2019. The following research methods were employed: field (phenological observations, sampling for laboratory analysis), microscopic (study of the morphological structure of glandular and cystolithic hairs on vegetative and generative organs, determination of the size and density of hair formation), laboratory and analytical (determination of the content of cannabinoid substances by thin layer and gas-liquid chromatography), biomorphological methods (analysis of morphological characteristics of plants). Chemical analysis for the content of cannabinoid substances was carried out in the laboratory of the breeding and seed production department of the Institute of Bast Crops of the NAAS of Ukraine (Glukhiv, 2014–2019). The content of neutral substances [cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] and acids (CBDA, THCA) was determined by using a thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) methods. For the study, 11 monoecious varieties of C. sativa: ‘YuSO 1’, ‘YuSO 31’, ‘Hliana’, ‘Viktoriia’, ‘Hlesiia’, ‘Hlukhivskyi 46’, ‘Hlukhivski 51’, ‘Zolotoniski 15’ and 3 introduced varieties: ‘Fedora 17’, ‘Felina 32’, ‘Futura 77’ (France) which differed among themselves in morphological, biological, genetic, ecological-geographical and economically valuable characteristics were selected.
Results. Biological and morphological characteristics of modern monoecious varieties of C. sativa were investigated depending on the ecological and geographical zones of origin, conditions of the growing season and the stage of ontogenesis. The functional interdependence between the formation of specialized excretory structures and the content of cannabinoid substances in plants of different varieties of C. sativa was revealed. The following promising varieties of C. sativa in a ration of ((THC + CBN) ≤ CBD) point the possibility to use them as the source material for creating the medicinal varieties of plants with a high content of CBD.
Conclusions. Nowadays C. sativa is the main source of phyto material for industrial production of natural CBD. In recent years, high-yielding varieties of C. sativa have been created, which, together with high commercially valuable traits, did not contain psychoactive THC and had an insignificant amount of CBD. The results of the research indicated the features of the seasonal growth rhythm, development of the plants and the morphological and biological features of modern monoecious introduced and domestic varieties of C. sativa in the North-east region of Ukraine. The low correlation between the content of cannabinoid substances and their acids in varieties, which are characterized by the low content of cannabinoid compounds was established. According to the developed own classification (THC + KBN): CBD, varieties with a predominant CBD content ‘Hlukhivskyi 46’, ‘Zolotoniski 15’, ‘Hliana’ which are of significant medicinal value were identified.
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