The results of divergence of early-maturing maize source material in heterosis breeding
Keywords:corn, hybrid, variety samples, line, germ plasm, genotype, collection
Purpose. To analyze the divergence of early maturing source material of corn Zea mays L. in heterosis breeding for the genetic base formation at the State Institution the Institute of Grain Crops of the NAAS of Ukraine.
Methods. Field (comprehensive assessment of morphobiological and economically valuable characteristics of the source material and maize hybrids) individual selection, cumulative and recurrent selection, backross and testcrosses breeding methods; laboratory; analysis and synthesis; statistical.
Results. The results of research on the analysis of the divergence of early maturing corn source material in the conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine has become a developed harmonized working collection of corn breeding samples adapted to the stressful conditions of this region. The gradual cyclical improvement of the lines made it possible to form the core of the genetic diversity of FAO 150–290 early maturing specimens of the southern ecotype, which are competitive in heterosis breeding. The complexity of breeding for early maturity in the steppe conditions is due to the lack of material adapted to the stress factors of the South of Ukraine. The available early maturing lines of the world collection F2, F7, Ер1, Ма21, Ма23, Со125, Со255, См7, PLS61, S72, etc., were distinguished by high cold resistance, good starting plant development, intensive accumulation of dry matter during ripening, but not adapted to the deficiency of moisture in the soil and high summer temperatures. According to the results of the experiment, it was revealed that, in terms of breeding, lines of Lancaster plasma (DK427 and DK633) were the most plastic, due to which a number of new mid-early lines were obtained, for example DK2/427, DK267, DK266/417, DK633/266, DK296, etc., which were included in the registered hybrids. Formation of the genetic base of early maturing maize source material for heterosis breeding and systematization according to different breeding characteristics provided a balance of samples of alternative components, which will be further used to model heterosis hybrids in the early maturing group.
Conclusions. The updated basic collection of lines is represented by the samples of plasma Iodent: DK744SVZM, DK216SVZM, DK4173SVZM, DK235zS, DK257zM, SV, DK365SVZM, DK777ZMSV, DK733-7zM,SV, DK315SVZM; Lancaster: DK296zS,VM, DK633/266zS,VM, DK2965ZSZM, DK2953 ZSZM, DK3023 ZSZM, DK236zS,ZM; Raid (SSS): DK232MV, DK2323MV, DK239MV; Mixed: DK253ZSZM, DK273MV, DK272zS, DK281SV, DK233zM,SV, DK959MV, DK9527 ZSZM, DK247MV, DK2442MV, which is the basis of the genetic diversity of early ripening corn samples included in the State register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine.
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