Influence of the substrate composition on the yield and nutritional value of the fruiting bodies of the edible mushrooms Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Cyclocybe aegerita
Keywords:cultivation of mushrooms, golden oyster mushroom, poplar mushroom, biological effectiveness, chemical composition
Purpose. To reveal the influence of the substrate compositions on technical indicators and the chemical composition of the fruiting bodies of the golden oyster mushroom and poplar mushroom.
Methods. The experimental design included cultivation of two species of wood-decay fungi Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer (strain 2161 IVK) and Cyclocybe aegerita (V.Brig.) Vizzini (strain 2230 IVK) on three variants of substrate composition. Laboratory, laboratory-production methods for evaluating the effectiveness of growing technology, chemical composition of the obtained raw materials, statistical methods of analysis were applied.
Results. The structure and composition of substrates affect the technological characteristics of the culture, physical and chemical properties of fruiting bodies. The shortest fruiting cycle of 35.2 ± 1.7 days was determined for C. aegerita under growing conditions on SC1 substrate which formula included «straw, husks, pellet, rapeseed, corn, and CaCO3» in the ratio of 30: 40: 70: 20: 20: 1. The highest yield (170.5 ± 15.2 g per 1 kg of substrate) in the experiment was determined for P. citrinopileatus on the SC1 substrate composed of «straw / pellets / rapeseed / corn / CaCO3» in the ratio 40: 90: 20: 25: 1. Fruiting bodies of P. citrinopileatus obtained from the SC3 substrate composed of «pellets / rapeseed / corn / CaCO3» in the ratio 60: 110: 20: 30: 1 had the highest protein content – 22.47 ± 0.19%, and fruiting bodies from the SC1 substrate had the least amount of proteins – 17.38 ± 2.60%. Fruiting bodies of C. aegerita contained more lipids than those of P. citrinopileatus, but the factor of the influence of the substrate composition on the total amount of lipids for some cultivars was insignificant. The largest amount of endopolysaccharides was isolated from the fruiting bodies of C. aegerita (6.81 ± 0.41%) cultivated on SC3 substrate, and the smallest in the SC1 variant (1.38 ± 0.25%). The content of endopolysaccharides in the fruiting bodies of P. citrinopileatus had less variability from 2.54 ± 0.54 (SC3) to 4.72 ± 0.61% (SC1).
Conclusion. Substrate compositions significantly affect the biological efficiency of cultivars and the content of nutrients in fruiting bodies of the studied species. The obtained results enable producers of mushrooms to predict the production efficiency and quality of grown mushrooms in accordance with the use of available raw materials.
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