Creation of the initial breeding material of soft winter wheat with a complex of economically valuable traits
Keywords:sources of stability, Fusarium head blight, common bunt, variety, hybrid, immunological characteristic
Purpose. Creation of new breeding material of soft winter wheat, highly resistant to diseases of the ear and pest colonization for use in the breeding process.
Methods. The studies were carried out in 2017–2020 under conditions of artificial inoculation of wheat plants with pathogens of common bunt and fusariosis of the ear in field infectious nurseries of the Department of Plant Protection of the V. M. Remeslo Institute of Wheat of NAAS. An artificial infectious background of common bunt was created according to the method of A. I. Borggard-Anpilogov, which consists in contamination of seed material with spores several days before sowing. An artificial infectious background of fusarium ear blight was created by spraying soft winter wheat plants in the flowering phase with a suspension of spores isolated from the local pathogen population.
Results. According to the results of the conducted research, highly resistant (up to 5% ear damage) combinations of hybrids of the fourth generation of soft wheat were selected against the causative agent of fusarium: ‘Berehynia Myronivska’ / ‘Nobeoka bozu’ had a thrips population of 5.2 ind./ear, and cereal leaf beetle – 35,0 ind./m2 and ‘Horlytsia myronivska’ / ‘C-Lokia’, the thrips population of which was 5.0 ind./ear, cereal leaf beetle – 2.0 ind./m2. On an artificial infectious background of fourth-generation hybrids, in terms of resistance to common bunt, the crossing combinations ‘Berehynia Myronivska’ / ‘Horianka’, ‘Lehenda Myronivska’ / ‘Nana’ were selected, which were affected by common bunt from 15 to 20%, and thrips population was 2.8–8.6 ind./ear, cereal leaf beetle – 5.0–6.0 ind./m2. The highest indicators of the length of the ear, the number of grains in the ear and the mass of grain from the ear were obtained in the combinations of ‘Oberih Myronivskyi’ / ‘Maris Templer’ and ‘Berehynia Myronivska’ / ‘Horianka’, which were created in accordance with the breeding programs of soft winter wheat for resistance against fusarium head blight and common bunt.
Conclusions. The constant lines of soft winter wheat, isolated by complex resistance against diseases and pests, are used in the breeding process of the V. M. Remeslo Institute of Wheat of NAAS and the National Center of Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine (The Plant Production Institute named after V. Ya. Yuriev, Kharkiv).
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