The growing factors impact the productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties




yield, protein and gluten content, soft winter wheat, ANOVA


Purpose. To determine the growing factors impact the economically valuable characteristics of new soft winter wheat varieties.

Methods. Field, biochemical methods, ANOVA.

Results. The influence of the growing zone, the growing season conditions and the genotype of the soft winter wheat varieties on yield, protein and gluten content were determined. The conditions of the growing zone have the greatest influence on studied varieties yield – 73%. On average, for 2020–2021, the maximum yield was obtained in the Forest-Steppe zone – 6.23–8.39 t/ha. In the Forest zone, the yield of studied soft winter wheat varieties was 5.31–7.02 t/ha. For the Steppe zone, the yield was within 5.16–6.63 t/ha. It was determined that varieties which showed low yield in the Forrest zone were characterized by higher yield in the Steppe zone. It was found that the growing zone (49%) and growing season (42%) conditions have the greatest effect on the protein content in grain of studied varieties. It was determined that variety ‘MANDARIN’ was characterized by the highest protein content in all growing zones (14.5–16.4%). In the Steppe and Forest-Steppe zones, high protein content was identified in grain of wheat varieties ‘Tata Mata’ (13.6–14.3%), ‘Eneida’ (13.6–14.3%) and ‘Novator’ (14.2 and 13.2%), in the Forest zone – in grain of varieties ‘Vahoma’ and ‘Eneida’ – 13.4% each. It was found that the growing zone conditions impacted gluten content in grain of studied wheat varieties by 64%, the influence of the growing season conditions was 28%. The effect of variety genotype on protein and gluten content was 5 and 4%, respectively. The grain of soft winter wheat varieties ‘MANDARIN’ and ‘Eneida’ contained the largest amount of gluten in all growing zones (27.7–31.8% and 27.3–30.3%). For the Steppe and Forest-Steppe zones, a high gluten content was found in grains of varieties ‘Illusion’ (28.4 and 30.8%) and ‘Tata Mata’ (27.8 and 29.8%).

Conclusions. It was found that growing zone conditions of soft winter wheat varieties (73%) and the interaction of factors zone × year (21%) impacted the yield significantly. The growing zone conditions (49 and 64%), growing season conditions (21 and 28%) and genotype of variety (5 and 4%, respectively) had a significant influence on protein and gluten content. Therefore, a significant influence of growing zone conditions on the productivity indicators of soft winter wheat determines the need to select varieties in order to obtain a high yield, taking into account the soil and climatic zone


Download data is not yet available.


Hotea, I., Dragomirescu, M., Colibar, O., Tirziu, E., Herman, V., Berbecea, A., & Radulov, I. (2021). The influence of climate conditions and meteorological factors on the nutritional value of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) used for human and animals nutrition, in Romania. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 906(1), Article 012019. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/906/1/012019

State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved from

Khomenko, T., & Storozhuk, V. Selection and estimation of winter wheat lines mutant origin. Agrobiology, 3, 17–21. [In Ukrainian]

Orekhivskyi, V. D., Kryvenko, A. I., & Pochkolina, S. V. (2021). Quality of winter wheat grain with different systems of main tillage in crop rotations of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine. Scientific reports NULES of Ukraine, 6. doi: 10.31548/dopovidi2021.06.010 [In Ukrainian]

Mehmood, Q., Riaz, M., Sail, M. H., & Moeen, M. (2018). Identifying key factors for maximizing wheat yield: a case study from Punjab (Pakistan). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 31(4), 361–367. doi: 10.17582/journal.pjar/2018/31.4.361.367

Twizerimana, A., Niyigaba, E., Mugenzi, I., Ngnadong, W. A., Li, C., Hao, T. Q., ... Hai, J. B. (2020). The combined effect of different sowing methods and seed rates on the quality features and yield of winter wheat. Agriculture, 10(5), Article 153. doi: 10.3390/agriculture10050153

Silifonov, T. V., Hospodarenko, H. M., Liubych, V. V., Polianetska, I. O., Novikov, V. V. (2021). Yield and grain quality of maturing stages of soft winter wheat with different fertilizer systems in crop rotation. Agrobiology, 2, 146–156. doi: 10.33245/2310-9270-2021-167-2-146-156 [In Ukrainian]

Zhemela, H. P., & Shakalii, S. M. (2012). The predecessors influence on crop productivity and grain’s quality of soft winter wheat. Bulletin of Poltava State Agrarian Academy, 3, 20–22. doi: 10.31210/visnyk2012.03.03 [In Ukrainian]

Burak, I., Olekshii, L., Kulka, V., & Litvishko, A. (2021). Creation of initial breeding material of soft winter wheat in the conditions of the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. In Proceedings of the 7th International Scientific and Practical Conference «International Forum: Problems and Scientific» (pp. 628–633). Melbourne: Publishing House. [In Ukrainian]

CISS Group. Wheat inspection. Retrieved from

Zaiets, S. O., Muzyka, V. Y., Nyzheholenko, V. M., & Rudik, O. L. (2021). Evaluation of adaptability and stability of soft winter wheat varieties under different conditions of moisture supply in the South of Ukraine. Irrigated Agriculture, 76, 17–21. doi: 10.32848/0135-2369.2021.76.3 [In Ukrainian]

Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food of Ukraine. (2022). State register of plant varieties suitable for distribution in Ukraine for 2022. Kyiv: Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food of Ukraine. Retrieved from [In Ukrainian]

Topchii, O. V., Prysiazhniuk, L. M., Ivanytska, A. P., Shcherbynina, N. P., & Kyienko, Z. B. (2020). The influence of growing factors on the productivity indicators of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Plant Varieties Studying and Protection, 16(1), 78–89. doi: 10.21498/2518-1017.16.1.2020.201269 [In Ukrainian]

Wang, X., & Liu, F. (2021). Effects of elevated CO2 and heat on wheat grain quality. Plants, 10(5), Article 1027. doi: 10.3390/plants10051027

Gahlot, S., Lin, T. S., Jain, A. K., Baidya Roy, S., Sehgal, V. K., & Dhakar, R. (2020). Impact of environmental changes and land management practices on wheat production in India. Earth System Dynamics, 11(3), 641–652. doi: 10.5194/esd-11-641-2020

Tkachyk, S. O. (Ed.). (2016). Metodyka provedennia ekspertyzy sortiv roslyn hrupy zernovykh, krupianykh ta zernobobovykh na prydatnist do poshyrennia v Ukraini [Methodology for examination of plant varieties of the cereal, grain and leguminous group for suitability for distribution in Ukraine]. Vinnytsia: FOP Korzun D. Yu. Retrieved from [In Ukrainian]

Tkachyk, S. O., Prysiazhniuk, O. I., & Leshchuk, N. V. (Comps.). (2016). Metodyka provedennia kvalifikatsiinoi ekspertyzy sortiv roslyn na prydatnist do poshyrennia v Ukraini. Zahalna chastyna [Methods of conducting qualitative examination of plant varieties for suitability for distribution in Ukraine. The common part] (4th ed., rev. аnd enl.). Vinnytsia: FOP Korzun D. Yu. Retrieved from [In Ukrainian]

Tkachyk, S. O. (Ed.). (2016). Metodyka provedennia kvalifikatsiinoi ekspertyzy sortiv roslyn na prydatnist do poshyrennia v Ukraini. Metody vyznachennia pokaznykiv yakosti produktsii roslynnytstva [Methodology for the qualification examination of plant varieties for suitability for distribution in Ukraine. Methods of determining plant production quality indicators] (3rd ed., rev. and enl.). Vinnytsia: FOP Korzun D. Yu. Retrieved from [In Ukrainian]

Simanjuntak, C., Gaiser, T., Ahrends, H. E., & Srivastava, A. K. (2022). Spatial and temporal patterns of agrometeorological indicators in maize producing provinces of South Africa. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 12072. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-15847-7

Roik, M. V., Prysiazhniuk, O. I., & Denysiuk, V. O. (2017). Review of software for statistical data analysis. Efektyvna ekonomika, 7. Retrieved from [In Ukrainian]

Han, J., Zhang, Z., Cao, J., Luo, Y., Zhang, L., Li, Z., & Zhang, J. (2020). Prediction of winter wheat yield based on multi-source data and machine learning in China. Remote Sensing, 12(2), Article 236. doi: 10.3390/rs12020236

Pramanik, P., Chakrabarti, B., Bhatia, A., Singh, S. D., Maity, A., Aggarwal, P., & Krishnan, P. (2018). Effect of elevated temperature on soil hydrothermal regimes and growth of wheat crop. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(4), Article 217. doi: 10.1007/s10661-018-6576-8

Liliane, T. N., & Charles, M. S. (2020). Factors affecting yield of crops. In A. Amanullah (Ed.), Agronomy-Climate Change & Food Security (pp. 9–24). London, UK: IntechOpen. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.78102

Lollato, R. P., Roozeboom, K., Lingenfelser, J. F., da Silva, C. L., & Sassenrath, G. (2020). Soft winter wheat outyields hard winter wheat in a subhumid environment: Weather drivers, yield plasticity, and rates of yield gain. Crop Science, 60(3), 1617–1633. doi: 10.1002/csc2.20139

Lyfenko, S., Nakonechnyi, M., & Narhan, T. (2021). Peculiarities of the selection of soft winter steppe ecotype wheat varieties in connection with climate change in the conditions of Southern Ukraine. Bulletin of Agricultural Science, 99(3), 53–62. doi: 10.31073/agrovisnyk202103-07 [In Ukrainian]

Kyrylchuk, A. M., & Kovalchuk, S. O. (2021). Breeding for quantitative and qualitative indicators of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Expanding genetic diversity of cultivated wheat. Agroecological Journal, 2, 140–148. doi: 10.33730/2077-4893.2.2021.234474 [In Ukrainian]

Bazalii, V. V., Boichuk, I. V., Lavrynenko, Yu. О., Bazalii, H. H., Domaratskyi, Ye. O., & Larchenko, O. V (2019). Problems and productivity of selection of winter wheat varieties with increased environmental stability. Factors in Experimental Evolution of Organisms, 24, 20–25. doi: 10.7124/FEEO.v24.1072 [In Ukrainian]

Popov, S. I., Leonov, O. Yu., Popova, K. M., & Avramenko, S. V. (2019). Ecological plasticity of winter wheat varieties depending on root nitrogen nutrition in the eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Plant Varieties Studying and Protection, 15(3), 296–302. doi: 10.21498/2518-1017.15.3.2019.181087 [In Ukrainian]

Linina, A., & Ruza, A. (2015). Weather conditions effect on fresh and stored winter wheat grain gluten quantity and quality. In Nordic view to sustainable rural development: proceedings of the 25th NJF Congress (pp. 148–153). Riga: NJF Latvia. Retrieved from

Balan, V. M., Prysiazhniuk, O. I., Balahura, O. V., & Karpuk, L. M. (2018). Roslynnytstvo osnovnykh kultur [Cultivation of main crops]. Kyiv: Nilan-LTD. [In Ukrainian]

Jaskulska, I., Jaskulski, D., Gałęzewski, L., Knapowski, T., Kozera, W., & Wacławowicz, R. (2018). Mineral composition and baking value of the winter wheat grain under varied environmental and agronomic conditions. Journal of Chemistry, 2018, Article 5013825. doi: 10.1155/2018/5013825

Islam, S., Yu, Z., She, M., Zhao, Y., & Ma, W. (2019). Wheat gluten protein and its impacts on wheat processing quality. Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering, 6(3), 279–287. doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019267

Giuliani, M. M., De Santis, M. A., Pompa, M., Giuzio, L., & Flagella, Z. (2014). Analysis of gluten proteins composition during grain filling in two durum wheat cultivars submitted to two water regimes. Italian Journal of Agronomy, 9(1), 15–19. doi: 10.4081/ija.2014.558



How to Cite

Prysiazhniuk, L., Khomenko, T., Liashenko, S., & Melnyk, S. (2023). The growing factors impact the productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties. Plant Varieties Studying and Protection, 18(4), 273–282.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>