Determination of biochemical indicators of winter rape seeds under different growing conditions
Keywords:winter rapeseed, oil content, “crude protein”, glucosinolates, oil collection, protein collection
Purpose. To determine the biochemical indicators of seed quality of winter rape varieties grown under different conditions.
Methods. During the research, the following methods were used: laboratory, calculation and statistical, to prepare conclusions – analysis and synthesis.
Results. According to the results of laboratory studies, biochemical indicators of the quality of seeds of winter rape varieties, grown in different conditions, were established, namely: the content of oil, “crude protein” and glucosinolates. Meteorological conditions during the vegetation period of plants of the corresponding soil and climate zone have a significant influence on the quality indicators of seeds. Based on the results of the research, it was established that in 2022, compared to 2020, the biochemical indicators of winter rapeseed were higher. The increase in yield by 1.6 t/ha in the Steppe zone, 1.1 t/ha – Forest-Steppe, 1.4 t/ha – Polissia ensured an increase in oil content by 2.4% – Steppe, 6.6% – Forest-Steppe, 6.7% – Polissia and oil collection per hectare by 0.74 t/ha – Steppe and Polissia, 0.62 t/ha – Forest-Steppe. For the content of “crude protein”, a decrease in the index was observed, namely: by 3.1% in the Steppe zone, 5.8% in the Forest-Steppe and 5.0% in the Polissia in 2022 compared to 2020. Meteorological conditions of the research years in the corresponding soil and climatic zones had an influence on the content of glucosinolates. For the Steppe and Forest-Steppe zones, the indicators were identical and amounted to 0.7%, 0.8% (Polissia), while in 2021, for the Steppe and Polissia zones, the content of glucosinolates in rapeseed was 0.8% and 0.9% more, compared to the indicators obtained in other years of research.
Conclusions. It was established that, on average, for 2020–2022, the total oil content in seeds of rape was 46.2% – Steppe, 47.5% – Forest-Steppe, 47.8% – Polissia; “crude protein” content – 19.6% – Steppe, 18.4% – Forest-Steppe, 17.9% – Polissia; the content of glucosinolates was 0.7% in the Steppe and Forest-steppe zones, 0.8% in the Polissia; oil collection in the Steppe zone 1.31 t/ha, Forest-Steppe – 1.16 t/ha, Polissia – 1.33 t/ha; protein collection per hectare is 0.54 t/ha in Steppe, 0.44 t/ha in Forest-Steppe and 0.48% in Polissia. Growing conditions over the years of research in the corresponding zone affect the formation of biochemical indicators of winter rapeseed.
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