Consumption values of apple (Malus domestica Borhk) fruits subject to plantation construction
Keywords:apple, variety, graft, dwarfy insertion, fruit weight
AbstractIn the conditions of Forest Steppe Zone of Ukraine a long term (1977 to 2007) research were conducted over the construction of apple plantations of different pomology varieties using vegetative low height shoots and low height insertions. The analyzes of consumption values of Aidarder pomology variety yield throughout the entire fruit-bearing span certified that the major part of the harvest consisted of the fruits of the highest and the first commercial grades. Consumption qualities of Aidarder variety fruits over the early vegetation span significantly exceeded relevant indices registered for the period of 16 to 19 years of vegetation. That is, where the total of the highest and first grades ranged within 66% to 80% of the full harvest weight, two cuttings being grown, at the age of thirteen, then, as the age of the plantation was increasing the was decreasing, eventually to the range of 63% to 68% of the full weight of the fruits. Comparison of the data obtained on fruits marketability against the yield level over relevant period exposed a renowned in horticulture trend of marketability decrease due to high yield. As regards the planting constructions where the lo height insertions are used the Aidarder variety displayed higher marketability of fruits, however, the trend was not absolute. In some variants of the test (11 years old trees free of insertion, cutting in winter dates applied) the Rubinove Duky variety provided greater by 6,8% amount of higher quality fruits. The research over consumption value of the apple fruits has shown that these were changing irrespective of the construction and the age of the plantings. The augment of the first and the highest commercial grades is only possible with low height cuttings or insertions applied at summer dates for the procedure of cutting. The weight of apple fruits depended on the varietal properties and were increasing in the constructions of low height constructions as long as low height M.9 insertion was in use.
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