Prospects of domestic viticulture transition to ecological (adaptive) management
Keywords:grapes, adaptive viticulture, variety, seedling, resistance level
Purpose. To determine the possibility of the domestic viticulture transition to the ecological (adaptive) management system, based on the use of highly adaptive varieties.
Methods. Procedures are conventional in viticulture. All stages of agrobiological research were carried out according to the M. A. Lazarevskiy technique. The resistance of genetic resources to fungal diseases was assessed using the 9-point scale on the natural infectious background with maximum damage. Organoleptic evaluation of wine and fresh grapes was performed using 8-point and a 10-point scales respectively.
Results. The main agrobiological traits (resistance to diseases, productivity and yield quality) of 22 perspective grape varieties and forms were studied. The level of resistance to fungal diseases was determined as one of the main criteria of the variety suitability for ecological (adaptive) viticulture. During five years, the average resistance level of this group of table and wine varieties was not lower than the relative one (6.5–7 points), and in ‘Zagrei’ variety – up to 7,5 points. The level of quality characteristics of products of new grape varieties and forms was determined (wine evaluation, marketability and assessment of fresh table grapes). Samples with a combination of high wine and grape quality characteristics and high productivity were selected. To replenish the gene pool of grapes by adaptive varieties, such perspective hybrid combinations as ‘Opalovyi’ ´ ‘Burmunk, ‘Avgustin’ ´ ‘Oryhinal and ‘Ohoniok tairovskyi’ ´ ‘Kardyshakh’ were studied. The level of group resistance to fungal diseases was identified and the perspective genotypes were preliminarily selected.
Conclusions. The level of display of a number of economic characters in the group of perspective table and wine grape varieties and forms was determined. Highly adaptive and highly productive varieties and forms suitable for the use in the adaptive viticulture were defined. Prospective hybrid combinations were considered, from which highly adaptive varieties will be selected as suitable for the ecological system of viticulture.
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Copyright (c) 2017 І. А. Ковальова, Л. В. Герус, М. Г. Банковська, M. Г. Федоренко, О. В. Салій
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