Sowing quality of the white lupine seeds in dependence on the phytotoxic impact of herbicides
Keywords:white lupine, weeds, herbicides, active substance, plants productivity, sowing qualities of seeds
Purpose. To study the phytotoxic impact of herbicides and their effect on the formation of plant productivity and sowing quality of white lupine seeds.
Methods. Field, laboratory and statistical methods were applied. Seed sowing quality parameters were determined in laboratory conditions in accordance with DSTU 2240-93.
Results. The most effective phytotoxic impact was found for herbicides and tank mixture: Harnes, Harnes + Jupiter, Prometrex + Jupiter, Prometrex and Stomp: the average levels of weeds death were: 79,0; 80,1; 77,4, 75,3 and 69,2% correspondingly. The best seed yield was obtained in the reference variant with manual weeding and in variants with the applying of Harnes herbicide and tank mixture Harnes + Jupiter, Prometrex + Jupiter, where the plant productivity was within 91.9–96.7% (of the reference variant). Lower seed mass (from the plant) was obtained on the areas with the herbicides applying on the visible sprouts (‘Serpnevyi’ variety – 6.8 g, ‘Chabanskyi’ variety – 7.4 g). Plant productivity in the variant without manual weeding and without any herbicide applying was the lowest – 5,9 g and 6,7 g correspondingly. The herbicides applying on the visible sprouts of lupine has led to crop seed germination energy decreasing in comparison with the reference variant by 2.0%. In the variant with herbicides spraying before the visible sprouts appearance, significant reduction was not observed. The lowest results were obtained in the variant without the herbicides use and without manual weeding (on average 85.7%). Laboratory test for seed sprouts in all variants corresponds to the requirements of State Standard of Ukraine (87.0%). A slight decreasing of seed sprouts was peculiar for the seeds obtained after herbicides spraying on the visible lupine sprouts (on average 92.0%). The weight of 1000 seeds in the variants with the herbicides use before the visible sprouts appearance was within 96.8–102.1% (in comparison with reference variant). A more significant decreasing observed in the variants with the herbicides spraying on the visible sprouts, where indices were on average 93.6% of the variant with manual weeding. The weight of 1000 seeds was the smallest in the variant without the herbicides use and without manual weeding.
Conclusions. The most effective action for the weeds control is established with the use of the herbicides such as: Harnes, Prometrex, Stomp; and the use of tank mixture such as: Harnes + Jupiter, Prometrex + Jupiter. The best indicators of productivity and seed sowing quality parameters were obtained in the reference variant with manual weeding, and the worst – without the herbicides use and without manual weeding. It was not defined negative effect on the sowing qualities of seeds with the use of herbicides before sprouts appearance. In the variants when herbicides were sprayed on the visible sprouts – it led to a slight negative effect.
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