Soft winter wheat varieties with resistance to negative environmental factors
Keywords:soft winter wheat, frost resistance, drought tolerance, evaluation methods
Purpose.To study the soft winter wheat varietal material for frost and drought resistance increasing during further breeding practice.
Methods. Wheat resistance to frost was evaluated by the methods of plant freezing in seed boxes (for sprouts), low temperature chambers (for seedlings) and drought tolerance by sprouting in sucrose solution with the intensity of the electrolyte’s leakage determination and the root system growth measurement.
Results. The most frost-resistant in the seed boxes were the varieties ‘Trudivnytsia Myronivska’, ‘Rozkishna’, ‘Hordovyta’, ‘Kokhana’, ‘Zira’, ‘Tsarivna’ and ‘Charodiika bilotserkivska’. The high seedling frost resistance was typical of the varieties ‘Kalynova’, ‘Voloshkova’, ‘Remeslivna’, ‘Yuviliar Myronivskyi’, ‘Pamiati Remesla’, ‘Myronivska storichna’, ‘Favorytka’, ‘Bohdana’, ‘Yasnohirka’. Among the varieties from other breeding institutions were ‘Kokhana’, ‘Kraievyd’, ‘Romantyka’ and ‘Donsimb’. As a result of laboratory evaluation of soft winter wheat drought tolerance the highest percentage of seed germination in conditions of high osmotic pressure was common for varieties ‘Horlytsia Myronivska’, ‘MIP Kniazhna’, ‘MIP Valensiia’, ‘Statna’, ‘Hordovyta’, ‘Shchedra Nyva’, ‘Zira’. According to the intensity of the electrolyte’s leakage majority of varieties showed tolerance to the moisture deficit at phase VI of organogenesis. The most tolerant were varieties ‘Hordovyta’, ‘Benefis’, ‘Hospodynia Myronivska’, ‘Svitanok Myronivskyi’, ‘Berehynia myronivska’ and some others. Among the varieties of Myronivka breeding, according to the intensity of the root system growth, the varieties ‘MIP Valensiia’, ‘Hospodynia myronivska’, ‘Horlytsia myronivska’, ‘Podolianka’ were marked.
Conclusions. The varieties ‘Trudivnytsia Myronivska’, ‘Rozkishna’, ‘Hordovyta’, ‘Tsarivna’, ‘Charodiika Bilotserkivska’, ‘Zira’ were identified as of higher frost resistance. The varieties ‘Horlytsia Myronivska’, ‘MIP Kniazhna’, ‘MIP Valensiia’, ‘Podolianka’, ‘Statna’, ‘Rozkishna’, ‘Hordovyta’, ‘Shchedra Nyva’, ‘Zira’ were found as of high drought tolerance. The varieties ‘MIP Kniazhna’, ‘Rozkishna’, ‘Hordovyta’ and ‘Zira’ were identified as of high complex adaptive ability.
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