The character of buckwheat varieties productivity formation according to timing and methods of sowing
Keywords:varieties, biometric indices of plants, elements of the structure of the crop, grain yield, varietal agricultural machinery, hydrothermal coefficient
Purpose. To study the varietal peculiarities of the buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) productivity formation in the conditions of unstable hydration of the Central Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine, depending on the timing and methods of sowing.
Methods. During 2015–2017, at the Ustymivka Experimental Station of Plant Production (Yuriev Plant Production Institute, NAAS of Ukraine) 6 varieties of buckwheat: ‘Yaroslavna’, ‘Slobozhanka’, ‘Ruslana’, ‘Ukrainka’, ‘Krupynka’, ‘SIN 3/02’ were studied. Buckwheat was sowed at a rate of 250 grains/m2 by wide (row spacing – 45 cm) and usual row (15 cm) methods into 3 steps with 5 days intervals: 5–6 May (soil temperature 14.5–16.6 °C), 10–11 and 15–16 May (16.4–19.1 and 16.9–17.3 °C correspondently).
Results. The results of the three-year experiment indicate a significant impact of the factors (variety, timing and method of sowing) on the buckwheat productivity formation, which varied in a rather wide range: the number of grains on one plant varied from 2.8 to 17.4 pcs.; the weight of 1000 grains – up to 2.4 g; yield – from 0.1 to 1.2 t/ha; and in higher degree depended on the weather conditions in the spring period. The arid conditions at the beginning of the vegetation phase reduced the grain size and number on the plants that caused a decrease in yield, while more humid conditions increased these rates. At the same time, the varieties ‘SIN-3/02’ and ‘Krupynka’ in the dry conditions of 2017 showed increased yields in the case of sowing in the usual routine manner. In previous years they provided higher yields for wide-row sowing, while in unfavorable conditions for growth and development, the usual routine method was more suitable, and the term of sowing did not have a significant impact on this. The terms of sowing with the intervals in 5 days, can not mitigate the negative effects of weather conditions, in general. The method of sowing is an effective factor for high buckwheat productivity and yield formation that to a certain degree depends on biological characteristics of the variety.
Conclusions. Among the studied buckwheat varieties, the ‘Yaroslavna’ variety characterized by the highest yield in case of wide-row sowing in the first decade of May (5–6.05). These elements of cultivation technology were better for the varieties ‘Slobozhanka’ and ‘Ruslana’. The second term of sowing (May 10–11) is more favorable for the varieties ‘SIN-3/02’ and ‘Ukrainka’ with the wide-row sowing. Buckwheat ‘Krupynka’ provided the highest yield with wide-row sowing in the first or second decade of May. In the case of sowing in the third term (15–16.05) all the varieties characterized by reduced productivity in comparison with other terms and methods of sowing
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