Growth, fruiting peculiarities and efficiency of cultivation of Ukrainian apple clones (Malus domestica Borkh.) of the ‘Jonagold’ variety
Keywords:apple, variety, ‘Jonagold’, clone, tree growth strength, fruiting type, fruit quality, keeping quality
Purpose. On the basis of a comprehensive study of the characteristics of growth, development, fruiting and quality of the fruits of spontaneous mutants of the apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh.) of ‘Jonagold’ variety, select clones which differ from the original variety in tree growth strength and are superior in yield, marketability, fruit keeping quality and economic production efficiency of the latter.
Methods. Field, laboratory, comparison, generalization and mathematical statistics.
Results. The results of studying the growth and fruiting characteristics of 20 Ukrainian spontaneous clones of ‘Jonagold’ variety in the conditions of the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine are presented. It is revealed that plants of the studied clones did not differ in terms of beginning and duration of the main phenological phases and vegetation period from the varieties widely distributed and well adapted to Podillia conditions. The harvesting ripeness of the clone fruits came in the second or third decades of September with a difference of seven days. Trees of most clones (DP-4, DP-5, DP-9, DP-10, DP-13, DP-14 and DP-17) were medium-growing. The yield of five to eight-year-old clone plantations was 12.1–32.3 t/ha, which provided cost-effective cultivation in the conditions of Podillia, the level of production profitability was 66–242%. All spontaneous mutants formed fruits larger than average size (except for DP-20, forming large ones), which are beautiful, elegant and vary in the intensity and character of the skin color depending on the clone. The clones DP-1, DP-3, DP-17, DP-18 and DP-19 were distinguished by a high yield of fruits of the highest and first grade.The clones DP-1, DP-3, DP-17, DP-18 and DP-19 were marked by the highest yield of apples of the higher and the first commodity grade, and this property was significantly superior to the yield of the control variety. The tested clones are divided into three groups according to the fruit ripening dates: early winter, winter, and late winter.
Conclusions. A long-term assessment of the objects of study revealed that the biological properties Ukrainian clones of ‘Jonagold’ variety correspond to the climatic conditions of the Western Forest-Steppe ofUkraine. Most of them belong to the medium-growth group (DP-4, DP-5, DP-9, DP-10, DP-13, DP-14 and DP-17) and are characterized by a mixed type of fruiting. Clones DP-1, DP-3, DP-17, DP-18 and DP-19 were distinguished by a high yield of fruits of the highest and first commodity grade. According to the main indicators of fruit quality, clones DP-3, DP-8, DP-13, DP-14, DP-16, DP-17, DP-18 and DP-20 were recognized as the best; the highest economic efficiency of apple production in Podillia was provided by clones DP-14, DP-17, DP-18 and DP-19. The latter ones are recommended for registration in “The State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination inUkraine”, as promising clones for introduction into planting for the production of fruits of universal purpose in the zone of the Western Forest-Steppe ofUkraine.
Sedov, E. N. (2011). Selektciya i novye sorta yabloni [Selection and new varietyes of apple trees]. Orel: VNIISPK. [in Russian].
Kondratenko, T. Ye. (2010). Sorty yabluni dlia promyslovykh i amatorskykh sadiv Ukrainy [Apple varieties for industrial and amateur gardens of Ukraine]. Kyiv: Manuskrypt-ASV. [in Ukrainian].
Powell, A., Himelrick, D., & Ebel, R. C. (2000). Apple varieties in Alabama. Alabama Coop. Ext. System., 7, 1–8. URL: https://ssl.acesag.auburn.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-1138/ANR-1138-archive.pdf
Tarnavska, K. P. (2015). Economic and Biological peculirities of the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivar Jonagold inlend clones. Sadivnytstvo [Horticulture], 69, 14–21. [in Ukrainian]
Kruczynska, D. (2008). Nowe odmiany jabloni. Warszawa: Hortpress Sp.z.o.o. [in Poland]
Shestopal, O. M. (Ed.). (2006). Metodyka ekonomichnoi ta enerhetychnoi otsinky typiv nasadzhen, sortiv, investytsii v osnovnyi kapital, innovatsii ta rezultativ tekhnolohichnykh doslidzhen u sadivnytstvi [Method of economic and energy estimation types of plantings, varieties, investments in fixed capital, innovations and results of technological research in gardening]. Kyiv: Institute of Agricultural Economics. [in Ukrainian]
Trohimchuk, A. I. (2013). The keeping quality of fruits of introduced varieties of apple trees grown in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. In Sovremennye sorta i tehnologii dlya intensivnykh sadov: materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsiii [Modern varieties and technologies for intensive gardens: materials of the Int. scientific-practical conf.] (pp. 249–251). June 15–18, 2013, Orel, Russia. [in Russian]
Ripamelnyk, V. P. (2002). Ahrobiolohichna otsinka perspektyvnoho sortymentu yabluni dlia Podillia Ukrainy [Economic and biological substantiation of perspective assortment of apple trees for Podollia region] (Cand. Agric. Sci. Diss.). Horticultural Institute NAAS, Vinnytsia, Ukraine. [in Ukrainian]
Mukhanin, I. V., & Kuznetsova, T. A. (2019). Principles of forming an assortment of apple trees for trellis-dwarf gardens. Retrieved from http://asprus.ru/blog/principy-formirovaniya-sortimenta-yabloni-dlya-shpalerno-karlikovyx-sadov/ [in Russian]
Kviklys, D., Kvikliene, N., & Uselis, N. (2013.) Suitability of ‘Jonagold’ apple clones for commercial growing in Lithuania. Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Section B., 67, 215–218. doi: 10.2478/prolas-2013-0037
Bogdanovich, T. V. (2017). Evaluation of the manufacturability of apple varieties for cultivation in orchards of intensive type. Plodovod. vinograd. Ûga Ross. [Fruit Growing and Viticulture of the South of Russia], 46, 1–8. [in Russian]
Honcharuk, Yu. D. (2014). The role of clonal selection of apple in the intensification of gardening. In Problemy i perspektivy razvitiya sovremennoy agrarnoy nauki: materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy internet-konferentsii [Problems and prospects of development of modern agricultural science: materials of the Int. scientific and practical Internet Conf.] (pp. 36–37). June 1, 2014, Mykolaiv, Ukraine [in Ukrainian]
Volkodav, V. V. (Ed.). (2005). Metodyka derzhavnoho sortovyprobuvannia silskohospodarskykh kultur na prydatnist do poshyrennia v Ukraini (plodovi, yahidni, horikhoplidni, subtropichni, vynohrad ta shovkovytsia) [Methods of conducting expert examination of fruit and berry varieties, nuts and berries and grapes (fruit, berries, walnut, subtropical, grapes and mulberry)]. (Vol. 2, Part 2). Kyiv: Alefa. [in Ukrainian]
Sedova, E. N., & Ogoltsova, T. P. (Eds.). (1999). Programma i metodika sortoizucheniya plodovikh, yagodnykh i orekhoplodnykh kul’tur [Program and method of sorting fruit, berry and nut tree crops]. Orel: VNYYSPK. [in Russian]
Yabluka. Nastanovy shchodo postachannia i kontroliuvannia yakosti: DSTU EIeK 00H FFV – 50:2007 [Apples. Supply and quality control guidelines: State Standart EEK 00H FFV - 50: 2007]. (2007). Kyiv: Derzhspozhyvstandart Ukrainy. [in Ukrainian]
Yabluka svizhi serednikh i piznikh terminiv dostyhannia. Tekhnichni umovy: HSTU 01.-37 – 160:2004 [Apples are a fresh medium to late maturity. Specifications. Industry standard of Ukraine 01.-37 – 160:2004]. (2005). Kyiv: Derzhspozhyvstandart Ukrainy. [in Ukrainian]
Dospekhov, B. A. (1985). Metodika polevogo opyta (s osnovami statisticheskoy obrabotki rezul’tatov issledovaniy) [Methods of field experiment (with the basics of statistical processing of research results)]. (5nd ed., rev.). Moscow: Agropromizdat. [in Russian]
Kondratenko, P. V., & Bublyk, M. O. (1996). Metodyka provedennia doslidzhen z plodovymy kulturamy [Method of conducting researches with fruit crops]. Kyiv: Ahrarna nauka. [in Ukrainian]
Kondratenko, P. V. (2001). Adaptatsiia yabluni v Ukraini [Adaptation of apple in Ukraine]. Kyiv: Svit. [in Ukrainian]
Omelchenko, I. K. (2005). Kultura yabluni v Ukraini [Apple Culture in Ukraine]. (2rd ed., rev.). Kyiv: Urozhai. [in Ukrainian]
Kruczynska, D. (2002). Nowe odmiany jabloni. Warszawa: Hortpress Sp.z.o.o. [in Poland]
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Т. Є Кондратенко
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Our journal abides by the CREATIVE COMMONS copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:
1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution License, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.