Morphophysiological features of the formation of winter wheat productivity depending on the cultivation technology
Keywords:winter wheat, fertilizers, stem, ear, flowers, grain, reduction, productivity, yield, quality
Purpose. Improve adaptive technologies for growing winter wheat, which will ensure the planned stem density and the productivity of the ear, what will allow forming the maximum yield with high grain quality.
Methods. Field, laboratory studies, mathematical and statistical analysis.
Results. During 2011–2015 the process of forming the productivity of winter wheat ‘Benefis’ variety with various cultivation technologies was monitored. In particular, indicators of the stem density, the number of initiated flowers, spikelets and grains in the ear, their reduction according to the stages of organogenesis, the potential yield of winter wheat and the degree to which it is actually realized are given. It was revealed that such elements of cultivation technology as doses of fertilizers, plant protection system positively influenced the density of the productive stems from the IV to XII stages of organogenesis. The largest number of preserved stems (695 pcs./m2) before the XII stage was noted in the variant with the introduction of Р135К135N60(II)+N75(IV)+N45(VIII) against the background of precursor by-products and in the case of integrated protection.The implementation of productive stems under these conditions was 41.3% quantity of the loss of stems from the IV to XII stage of organogenesis ranged from 657–986 pcs./m2 depending on doses of fertilizers and a protection system. The number of flowers (grains) in the ear from the V to the XII stage changed depending on the nutritional conditions of the plants and enhanced with increasing doses of fertilizers in the ear of both orders. By the number of flowers per spike, integrated protection had an advantage over the minimum. The largest number of flowers from stage V to IX was received for introducing P135K135N60 (II) + N75 (IV) + N45 (VII) against the background of by-products of the predecessor and in the case of integrated protection.
Conclusions. It was found that in the conditions of the northern part of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine on the dark gray podzolized soil, the highest productivity of winter wheat was obtained by intensive energy-saturated cultivation technology with the introduction of Р135К135N60(II)+75(IV)+45(VIII) on the background of by-products of the precursor system and in the case of integrated protection. This technology ensure yield of 6.56 t/ha of grade 1 grain of A quality Group
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