The influence of genes which responsible for leaf shape and lines height on the economic qualities of Helianthus annuus hybrids
Keywords:sunflower, yield, oil content, 1000 seeds weight, hybrids, analogue line
Purpose. To study the influence of the Dw, Fr, sp genes which control the morphological markers of lines on the economically valuable indicators of the first-generation hybrids.
Methods. Field experiment, morphological description and biometric measurements, statistical analysis.
Results. The analogue lines were crossed by genes responsible for morphological characteristics of the leaf shape sp (spoon-shaped), leaf edge Fr (fringe), stem Dw (dwarf) and the initial selection lines with sterile lines. The cross-bred hybrids were evaluated in the field experiment on the manifestation of marker trait, yield, oil content, weight of 1000 seeds, height, diameter of the basket (head), the number of leaves. Indicators of line hybrids with morphological marker lines were compared with indicators of hybrids with baseline lines without marker features. The recessive allele of the sp gene determines the spoon-like shape of the leaf, with edges bend upward. This sing is not observed in the first-generation hybrids. Fr gene in the dominant state determines the strongly rugged edge of the leaf. In hybrids of the first generation, changes in the edge of the leaf plate are also observed. The third sign - dwarf of sunflower is determined by the Dw gene, which in the dominant homozygous state reduces the height of plants to 90–100 cm. In the heterozygous state, plants also have a decrease in height. Three breeding lines were used to create analogue lines according to these three criteria. There were two parent ‘LVO7V’, ‘ZL678V’ and one maternal ‘L06B’. Six maternal sterile lines were used to cross with analogue lines. Hybrids were studied by yield, oil content, weight of 1000 seeds, plant height, head diameter, number of leaves.
Conclusions. A high probability of the negative impact of the dominant allele of the Dw gene (dwarfishness – short stem height) on the hybrids productivity was found. The high probability of a positive effect of the recessive allele of the sp gene (spoon shaped leaf) on the yield, oil content and number of leaves of hybrids with a line carrier of recessive homozygotes has been proved. The moderate and low probabilities of the difference in the level of signs of hybrids with the dominant allele of the Fr gene (fringe of the leaf edge) and hybrids with baseline lines were determined.
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