Evaluation weather conditions for growing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the northern part of the Left-bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine





sunflower, average daily temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, sum of thermal units, sum of active and effective, biologically active minimum, stability


Pourpose. Establish compliance of heat and moisture resources to biological requirements of sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus), reveal criteria for assessing weather conditions in the northern regions of Ukraine; establish links between temperature, precipitation and yield.

Methods. Field and mathematical methods were used. Field multifactorial experiment was conducted during 2016–2018 in the Left Bank of Ukraine, on the border of two soil and climatic zones of Ukraine - Forest-Steppe and Polissya. Peculiarities of plant growth and development, formation of "hybrids" yield (factor A) were studied: 'Ukrainskyi F1', 'P63LL06', 'NK Brio', 'NK Ferti' depending on "plant density" (factor B): 50, 55 , 60, 65 thousand pieces/hectare. We calculated and analyzed the sums of active, effective temperatures for two biological minima - 5 and 10 ° C; the sum of thermal units according to the method of Brown and Bootsma, 1993; coefficients of materiality of elements deviations of the agrometeorological mode of the current year from long-term averages; plasticity and yield stability according to the method of Eberthart S.A., Russel W.Q. (1966).

Results. To pass the full cycle of sunflower plants development, the sum of active temperatures (t = 10 °C) for hybrid 'Ukrainskyi F1' – 2354.6; P63LL06 – 2306.4; 'NK Brio' – 2401.3; 'NK Ferti' – 2379.7; and the sum of effective temperatures for 'Ukrainskyi F1'- 1081.5; 'P63LL06' – 1056.9; 'NK Brio' – 1104.9; 'NK Ferti' – 1109.1 is required. The sum of temperatures, both at a biological minimum temperature 10 °C and 5 °C, meet biological needs of sunflower plants and is not a limiting factor for this crop growing. The sum of thermal units for the period April–October is 3780 on average for three years. During the period of active sunflower vegetation (April–August) the sum of thermal units is 2868–3258, significantly exceeding the sum of active and effective temperatures at biologically active temperatures 5 °С and 10 °С. The most determined limits of changes in active, effective temperatures and thermal units were observed in May – September.

Conclusions. Plasticity and stability of sunflower yield more depending on hybrid and plants density than on conditions of the year. Yield stability coefficient for hybrid 'Ukrainskyi F1' was 1.68 - 2.30; 'P63LL06'- 2.51 - 3.14; 'NK Brio'- 3.15 - 4.63; 'NK Ferti' - 2.70 - 3.75 for yields, respectively: 2.16 - 3.11; 2.58 - 3.52; 3.20 - 4.12; 2.70 - 3.79 t/ha.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

С. М. Каленська, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine

Kalenska S. M.

А. С. Риженко, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine

Ryzhenko A. S.


Adamenko, T. I., Kulbida, M. I., & Prokopenko, A. L. (Ed.). (2016). Ahroklimatychni resursy Ukrainy: Atlas [Agroclimatic resources of Ukraine: Atlas]. Kiev : Ukrainska kartohrafichna hrupa. [in Ukrainian]

Debaeke, P., Casadebaig, P., Flenet, F., & Langlade, N. (2017). Sunflower crop and climate change: vulnerability, adaptation, and mitigation potential from case-studies in Europe. OCL, 24(1), D102. doi: 10.1051/ocl/2016052

Mijić, A., Liović, I., Kovačević, V., & Pepó, P. (2012). Impact of weather conditions on variability in sunflower yield over years in eastern parts of Croatia and Hungary. Acta Agron. Hung., 60(4), 397–405. doi: 10.1556/AAgr.60.2012.4.10

Debaeke, P., & Aboudrare, A. (2004). Adaptation of crop management to water-limited environments. Eur. J. Agron., 21(4), 433–446. doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2004.07.006

Eremenko, O. A., Kalitka, V. V., Kalenska, S. M., & Malkina, V. M. (2018). Assessment of ecological plasticity and stability of sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L.) in Ukrainian Steppe. Ukr. J. Ecol., 8(1), 289–296. doi: 10.15421/2018_216

Gonzáles, J., Mancuso, N., & Ludueña, P. (2013). Sunflower yield and climatic variables. Helia, 36(58), 69–76. doi: 10.2298/hel1358069g

Ion, V., Dicu, G., Basa, A. G., Dumbrava, M., Temocico, G., Epure, L. I., & State, D. (2015). Sunflower Yield and Yield Components under Different Sowing Conditions. Agric. Agric. Sci. Proc., 6, 44–51. doi: 10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.08.036

Canavar, Ö., Ellmer, F., & Chmielewski, F. M. (2010). Investigation of yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars in the ecological conditions of Berlin (Germany). Helia, 33(53), 117–130. doi: 10.2298/hel1053117c

Falloon, P., & Betts, R. (2010). Climate impacts on European agriculture and water management in the context of adaptation and mitigation – the importance of an integrated approach. Sci. Total Environ., 408(23), 5667–5687. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.05.002

Gibbons, J. M., & Ramsden, S. J. (2008). Integrated modelling of farm adaptation to climate change in East Anglia, UK: scaling and farmer decision-making. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 127(1–2), 126–134. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2008.03.010

Brown, D. M., & Bootsma, A. (1993). Crop Heat Units for Corn and Other Warm Season Crops in Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Retrieved from https://www.sojafoerderring.de/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Berechnung-CHU-Uni-Guelph-Ontario.pdf

Killi, D., Bussotti, F., Raschi, A., & Haworth, M. (2016). Adaptation to high temperature mitigates the impact of water deficit during combined heat and drought stress in C3 sunflower and C4 maize varieties with contrasting drought tolerance. Physiol. Plant., 159(2), 130–147. doi: 10.1111/ppl.12490

Mila, A. J., Akanda, A. R., Biswas, S. K., & Ali, M. H. (2016). Crop Co-efficient Values of Sunflower for Different Growth Stages by Lysimeter Study. Br. J. Environ. Clim. Change., 6(1), 53–63. doi: 10.9734/BJECC/2016/24246

Bootsma, A. (2008). Crop Heat Units (CHU) for Canada for Land Suitability Rating System (LSRS) and impacts of climate change. Final Report for Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Contract #3000321992 – Assessment of climate change impacts on canadian agricultural landsuitability: Modeling Corn & Canola Crops. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/andybootsma/home/crop-heat-unit-reports

Gordo, O., & Sanz, J. J. (2010). Impact of climate change on plant phenology in Mediterranean ecosystems. Global Change Biol., 16(3), 1082–1106. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02084.x

Moriondo, M., Giannakopoulos, C., & Bindi, M. (2011). Climate change impact assessment: the role of climate extremes in crop yield simulation. Clim. Change, 104(3–4), 679–701. doi: 10.1007/s10584-010-9871-0

Peltonen-Sainio, P., Jauhiainien, L., Hakala, K., & Ojanen, H. (2009). Climate change and prolongation of growing season: changes in regional potential for field production in Finland. Agric. Food Sci., 18(3-4), 171–190. doi: 10.2137/145960609790059479

Kwabiah, A. B., MacPherson, M., & McKenzie, D. B. (2003). Corn heat unit variability and potential of corn (Zea mays L.) production in a cool climate ecosystem. Can. J. Plant Sci., 83(4), 689–698. doi: 10.4141/p02-127

Ziska, L. H., Bunce, J. A., Shimono, H., Gealy, D. R., Baker, J. T., Newton, P. C., … Wilson, L. T. (2012). Food security and climate change: on the potential to adapt global crop production by active selection to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Proc. R. Soc. B: Biol. Sci., 279(1745), 4097–4105. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.1005

Ermantraut, E. R., Hoptsii, T. I., Kalenska, S. M., Kryvoruchenko, R. V., Turchynova, N. P., & Prysiazhniuk, O. I. (2014). Metodyka selektsiinoho eksperymentu (u roslynnytstvi) [Method of selection experiment (in crop production)]. Kharkiv: N.p. [in Ukrainian]

How to Cite

Каленська, С. М., & Риженко, А. С. (2020). Evaluation weather conditions for growing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the northern part of the Left-bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. Plant Varieties Studying and Protection, 16(2), 162–172. https://doi.org/10.21498/2518-1017.16.2.2020.209229