Features of formation of productivity of sugar beets hybrids of domestic breeding
Keywords:root crop harvest, sugar content, sugar collection, cluster analysis, the share of influence of factors
Purpose. To reveal features of formation of productivity of modern sugar beet hybrids of domestic selection.
Methods. Field, laboratory.
Results. Studies show that the lowest yields of sugar beets were obtained in 2016, 2017 and 2019. Moreover, the conditions of the unstable humidification zone of the Right-Bank part of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine were mainly characterized by unstable precipitation, a decrease in their amount, as well as increased average daily air temperatures. Therefore, the selection of high-yielding hybrids of sugar beets to obtain a high level of productivity is relevant. As evidenced by the data comparing the yield of sugar beet root crops on the test site, they significantly exceeded the average indicators for Kiev region by 10.7–20.0 t/ha, and only in arid 2016 the difference was minimal – 4.6 t/ha. The high stability of the trait “sugar content in root crops” is inherent not only in hybrids with low parameters of its manifestation, but is largely determined by the genetic characteristics of the hybrid. Three clusters were identified based on the reaction of hybrids to growing conditions. The first cluster included triploid hybrids: ‘Zluka’, ‘Oleksandriia, ‘Olzhych’, ‘Kvarta’ and ‘Konstanta’, the second one – the triploid hybrid ‘BTs ChS 57’ and diploid ‘Vesto’, the third cluster - the triploid hybrid ‘Sofiia’ and diploid ‘Ukrainskyi ChS 72’.
Conclusions. Proper selection of high-yielding hybrids resistant to adverse growing conditions in the zone of unstable moisture of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine is extremely important, because the biological characteristics of hybrids affect 45% of the amount of sugar harvest, but the growing season by 33% and the interaction of factors was 17%. It was found that despite the difficult weather conditions, the highest yields were formed by hybrids: ‘Anichka’ – 70.1 t/ha, ‘Ramzes’ – 70.5 t/ha, ‘Romul’ – 73.0 t/ha and ‘BTs ChS 57’ – 73.4 t/ha. But the maximum sugar content in root crops was in hybrids: ‘Ukrainskyi ChS 72’ – 17.3%, ‘Zluka’ – 17.3% and ‘Sofiia’ – 17.7%. Accordingly, the maximum sugar harvest was provided by hybrids: ‘BTs ChS 57’ – 12.1 t/ha and ‘Romul’ – 12.2 t/ha.
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