Features of seasonal growth of Arundo donax var. versicolor Mill. (Stokes) in the conditions of the M. M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine





Arundo donax var. versicolor, phenological phases, sum of effective temperatures, shoot-forming ability


Purpose. To define of phenological and morphological features of A. donax var. versicolor growth during the introduction in the M. M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NBG).

Methods. The object of research was the plants of A. donax var. versicolor in the collection of ornamental grasses of the department of flower and ornamental plants of NBG. The plants were grown on a sunny experimental area during 2014–2020. Since under NBG conditions, A. donax var. versicolor did not enter the flowering phase, the beginning of the phases of spring regrowth, leaf unfolding, and the end of the growing season were recorded. Morphometric parameters and shoot-forming ability were investigated for 3–5 years of cultivation.

Results. The beginning and duration of the phases of shoot spring regrowth and the unfolding of leaves of A. donax var. versicolor as well as their dependence on the sum of effective temperatures was established. Thus, spring regrowth begins with renewal buds on May 11 ± 5 days at the effective temperature sums of 226.6 ± 19.7 °С. The phase of leaf development in plants occurred on May 20 ± 7 days. The effective temperature sum at the beginning of this phase was 309.45 ± 11.66 °C. The productivity of shoot formation (1.6 ± 0.3 shoot per plant) under the conditions of introduction was determined.

Conclusions. A. donax var. versicolor plants did not have a full cycle of seasonal development in the conditions of the NBG. Plants formed vegetative monocyclic shoots 240–260 cm tall. The duration of their vegetation was 182–189 days. The optimal period for the growth of the ground mass of plants fell on July-August. During this period, the leaves were quickly formed, the number of which was 28.8 ± 6.68 on the shoot. The correlation between the rate of accumulation of effective temperatures and the rate of regrowth of plant shoots was recorded.


Download data is not yet available.


Kew Science. (n. d.). Arundo donax L. In Plants of The World online. Retrieved from http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:390837-1

Missouri Botanical Garden. (n. d.). Arundo donax. Retrieved from http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=285183

CABI. (n. d.). Arundo donax (giant reed). In Invasive Species Compendium. Retrieved from https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/1940

Maceda-Veiga, A., Basas, H., Lanzaco, G., Sala, M., Sostoa, A., & Serra, A. (2016). Impacts of the invader giant reed (Arundo donax) on riparian habitats and ground arthropod communities. Biol. Invasions, 18(3), 731–749. doi: 10.1007/s10530-015-1044-7

Pilu, R., Bucci, A., Badone, F. C., & Landoni, M. (2012). Giant reed (Arundo donax L.): A weed plant or a promising energy crop? Afr. J. Biotechnol., 11(38), 9163–9174. doi: 10.5897/AJB11.4182

Dyachenko, T. N., & Lyashenko, A. V. (2012). Arundo reed (Arundo donax L.) in Kylyia Danube delta. Gidrobiol. Zh. [Hydrobiol. J.], 48(5), 115–119. [in Russian]

Fabbrini, F., Ludovisi, R., Alasia, O., Flexas, J., Douthe, C., Ribas Carbó, M., … Harfouche, A. (2018). Characterization of pheno­logy, physiology, morphology and biomass traits across a broad Euro-Mediterranean ecotypic panel of the lignocellulosic feedstock Arundo donax. GCB Bioenergy, 11(1), 152–170. doi: 10.1111/gcbb.12555

Kurylo, V. L., Rakhmetov, D. B., & Kulyk, M. I. (2018) Biological features and yield potential of energy crops of the Biological features and yield potential of energy crops of the Poaceae family in the conditions of Ukraine. Vìsnik PDAA [Bulletin of Poltava State Agrarian Academy], 1, 11–17. doi: 10.31210/visnyk2018.01.01 [in Ukrainian]

Antal, G. (2018). Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) from ornamental plant to dedicated bioenergy species: review of economic prospects of biomass production and utilization. Int. J. Hortic. Sci., 24(1–2), 39–46. doi: 10.31421/IJHS/24/1-2./1545

Corno, L., Pilu, R., & Adani, F. (2014). Arundo donax L.: a non-food crop for bioenergy and bio-compound production. Biotechnol. Adv., 32(8), 1535–1549. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2014.10.006

Alshaal, T., Domokos-Szabolcsy, É., Márton, L., Czakó, M., Kátai, J., Balogh, P., … Fári, M. (2013). Phytoremediation of bauxi­te-derived red mud by giant reed. Environ. Chem. Lett., 11(3), 295–302. doi: 10.1007/s10311-013-0406-6

Elhawat, N., Alshaal, T., Domokos-Szabolcsy, É., El-Ramady, H., Márton, L., Czakó, M., Kátai, J., … Fári, M. G. (2014). Phytoaccumulation potentials of two biotechnologically propagated ecotypes of Arundo donax in copper-contaminated synthetic wastewater. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 21(12), 7773–7780. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-2736-8

Cristaldi, A., Oliveri Conti, G., Cosentino, S. L., Mauromicale, G., Copat, C., Grasso, A., … Ferrante, M. (2020). Phytoremediation potential of Arundo donax (Giant Reed) in contaminated soil by heavy metals. Environ. Res., 185, 109427. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109427

Al-Snafi, A. E. (2015). The constituents and biological effects of Arundo donax – A review. Int. J. Phytopharm. Res., 6(1), 34–40.

Griffiths, M. (1994). Index of Garden Plants. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Antal, G., Fári, M. G., & Domokos-Szabolcsy, É. (2018). Obtention of new ornamental leaf variants of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) originated from somatic embryogenesis and their photosynthetic parameters. Int. J. Hortic. Sci., 24(1–2), 18–24. doi: 10.31421/IJHS/24/1-2./1542

Brickell, E. C. (Ed). (1996). A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. London; New York; Stuttgart; Moscow: Dorling Kindersley.

Osadchyi, V. I., Kosovets, O. O., & Babichenko, V. M. (Eds.). (2010). Klimat Kyieva [Climate of Kyiv]. Kyiv: Nika-Tsentr. [in Ukrainian]

Central Geophysical Observatory named by Boris Sreznevsky. (n. d.). Klimatychni dani po mistu Kyievu [Climatic data on the city of Kyiv]. Retrieved from http://cgo-sreznevskyi.kyiv.ua/index.php?fn=k_klimat&f=kyiv [in Ukrainian]

Weather in Kyiv. (n. d.). In Spravochno-informatsionnyy portal “Pogoda i klimat” [Reference and information portal “Weather and Climate”]. Retrieved from http://www.pogodaiklimat.ru/monitor.php?id=33345 [in Russian]

Bulakh, P. E. (2010). Teoriya i metody prognozirovaniya v introduktsii rasteniy [Theory and methods of forecasting in plant introduction]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Bulakh, P. E., & Shumik N. I. (2013). Teoriya ustoychivosti v introduktsii rasteniy [Theory of resistance in plant introduction]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Shul’ts, G. E. (Ed.). (1975). Metodika fenologicheskikh nablyudeniy v botanicheskikh sadakh SSSR [Methods of phenological observations in botanical gardens of the USSR]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo AN SSSR. [in Russian]

Kuperman, F. M. (1977). Morfofiziologiya rasteniy. Morfofiziologicheskiy analiz etapov organogeneza razlichnykh zhiznennykh form pokrytosemennykh rasteniy [Plant morphophysiology. Morphophysiological analysis of organogenesis stages of various life forms of angiosperms]. (3nd ed., rev.). Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. [in Russian]

Zaytsev, G. N. (1991). Matematicheskiy analiz biologicheskikh dannykh [Mathematical analysis of biological data]. Moscow: Nauka. [in Russian]

Spencer, D. F., & Ksander, G. G. (2006). Estimate Arundo donax ramet recruitment using degree-day based equation. Aquat. Bot., 85(4), 282–288. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2006.06.001



How to Cite

Shcherbakova, T. O. (2021). Features of seasonal growth of Arundo donax var. versicolor Mill. (Stokes) in the conditions of the M. M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Plant Varieties Studying and Protection, 17(3), 175–182. https://doi.org/10.21498/2518-1017.17.3.2021.242945