Agrobiological evaluation of collection of vegetable soybean varieties in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
Keywords:edamame, yield, protein, sugar content, seeds
Purpose. Agrobiological assessment of soybean varieties Glycine max var. Shirofumi on a complex of economically valuable traits for introduction in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Selection of promising breeding forms based on morpho-biological and physiological-biochemical characteristics.
Methods. Field, laboratory, statistical, computational and analytical. The studies were carried out in the conditions of the educational and production department of Uman National University of Horticulture during 2020–2021, using collection varieties of different ecological and geographical origin (Ukraine, Belarus, Sweden, Japan and Russia). The cultivars were assessed according to the following parameters: plant height, leaf area, net productivity of photosynthesis and indices of individual productivity (weight of beans per plant, number of seeds in a bean, etc.), productivity of green beans and biologically mature seeds and, accordingly, quality indicators of production (dry matter, sugar and protein content). The counts were carried out in the phase of the technical ripeness of the beans.
Results. The variability of the “plant height” trait of the studied varieties had an average variation – the coefficient of variation was 22%. The results showed that the standard cultivar ‘Romatnyka’ and the collection cultivars ‘Karikachi’ and ‘Astra’ belong to the semi-determinant type of growth (97–109 cm), cultivar ‘Fiskeby V’, ‘L 380-2-13’, ‘Fiskeby V-E5’, ‘SibNIISOKh 6’, ‘Sac’, ‘Vesta’ belong to the determinant type of growth. According to the number of seeds in the pod, the studied varieties were clearly divided into two groups: with two-seeded beans (varieties ‘Karikachi’, ‘Astra’, ‘L 380-2-13’) and three-seeded beans [varieties ‘Romatnyka’ (standard), ‘Fiskeby V’, ‘Vesta’, ‘SibNIISOX 6’, ‘Sac’, ‘Fiskeby V-E5’]. The maximum yield of edamame beans was produced by varieties ‘L 380-2-13’ (17.3 t/ha), ‘Vesta’ (18.8 t/ha), ‘Sac’ (19.6 t/ha), ‘Fiskeby V’ (21.4 t/ha), ‘Fiskeby V-E5’ (22.4 t/ha). A significant differentiation of soybean varieties in the biochemical composition of immature beans was revealed. The dry matter content was 22.70–31.70%. The share of protein in edamame green beans was 28.2–38.6%, in biologically mature seeds its share increased to 36.1–42.8%. Among soluble sugars, the highest concentration was noted for sucrose – 7.70–9.38 mg/100 g in dry seeds, what in average amounted to 81.6–86.2% of all sugars. The presented results provide a comprehensive assessment of breeding work on soybean varieties with a low content of oligosaccharides.
Conclusions. Evaluation of collection varieties of vegetable soybeans by the variability of morphological traits and productivity made it possible to distinguish ‘Sac’ variety by a complex of valuable traits for creation of new varieties of vegetable soybeans adapted to the conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
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