Amino acid content in grain of different winter pea varieties and products of its processing
Keywords:variety, winter pea, grain, amino acid, amino acid score, integral score, flour, cereals
Purpose. Determine amino acid content, biological and nutritional value of grain of different winter pea varieties and products of its processing.
Methods. The amino acid share was determined by ion exchange liquid chromatography. Mathematical processing of the obtained data was performed by variance analysis of a one-factor field experiment. Amino acid and integral scores were determined by calculation.
Results. Winter pea grain of ‘NS Moroz’, ‘Baltrap’ and ‘Enduro’ varieties had high amino acid content. In the composition of essential amino acids, lysine and leucine share was the highest – 1.53–1.77%, and methionine share was the lowest – 0.25–0.28% depending on winter pea variety. The main amino acid of winter pea grain was glutamic acid, the share of which was 3.25–3.30% of the share of all amino acids. The share of aspartic acid was 2.30–2.37% depending on the variety. In the composition of essential amino acids, cystine share was the lowest – 0.31–0.37% depending on the variety. The share of essential amino acids in winter pea was 40–41% of their total. The share of tryptophan decreased by 30–43%, isoleucine – by 20–24%, methionine – by 8–29%, phenylalanine, lysine, leucine – by 8–12%, valine share – by 5–9%, threonine one – by 1–5%. In the composition of essential amino acids, cystine share decreased most – by 58–73%, histidine – by 36–43%, glycine – by 42–45% compared to grain. Alanine share decreased by 19–25%, glutamic acid – by 12–15%, tyrosine – by 8–18%, aspartic acid – by 9–12%. The share of serine and arginine decreased least of all – by 3–8%. However, the amount of essential amino acids decreased by only 15–17% depending on the varietal characteristics. It was found that the amino acid score of winter pea grain and products of its processing was non-deficient. Calculations showed that 100 g of winter pea grain satisfied the biological need of adults with isoleucine by 55–58%, valine – 51–42%, tryptophan – 41–50%, lysine – 37–40%, threonine – 39–40%, leucine – 36–38%. The highest daily requirement was provided by 100 g of grain processing products with arginine and glutamic acid – by 20–26%, depending on winter pea variety. For the rest of the essential amino acids, this figure was 6–16% for flour and 2–15% for cereals due to a decrease in the amino acid content in these products.
Conclusions. The share of amino acids, biological and nutritional value of grain of different winter pea varieties and products of its processing, such as cereals and flour were determined. In the amino acid composition, the share of essential amino acids predominated, but 100 g of grain and products of its processing most meet the need for essential amino acids. The share of amino acids is reduced in the products of winter pea processing, especially in cereals. The amino acid score of winter pea grain of ‘NS Moroz’, ‘Baltrap’ and ‘Enduro’ varieties and products of its processing was balanced.
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