The influence of soil and climatic conditions on the manifestation of economically valuable traits in different varieties of Helianthus annuus L.
Keywords:the common sunflower, varieties, yield, oil content, protein content, expertise
Purpose. To carry out a comprehensive study and evaluation of new varieties of the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) according to the main economically valuable traits, in particular yield, disease resistance, oil and protein content.
Methods. The following methods were used: field, laboratory, comparison and mathematical statistics. The qualification examination of sunflower varieties on suitability for distribution in Ukraine (SVD) was carried out in the Steppe and Forest-Steppe soil-climatic zones. In the research process, the “Methodology for the qualification examination of plant varieties on suitability for distribution in Ukraine (general part)” and the “Methodology for the examination of technical and fodder plant varieties on suitability for distribution in Ukraine” were used.
Results. The varietal potential of the common sunflower in terms of yield, protein and oil content and hulliness was analysed. At the same time, economically valuable traits of new varieties (‘MAS 804G’, ‘LG58390’, ‘LG50550 CLP’, ‘SY THEOS’, ‘LG50549 SX’, ‘LG58630’, ‘P64LL164’, ‘P64LL455’), included in the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Distribution in Ukraine, were evaluated. In all years of testing, the yield in the Forest-Steppe zone was higher than in the Steppe (‘MAS 804G’ – by 49%, ‘LG50550 CLP’ – by 38%, ‘SY THEOS’ – by 28.9%, ‘LG50549 SX’ – by 21.9%, ‘LG58630’ – 19.5%, ‘P64LL455’ – 12.6%, ‘P64LL164’ – 10.3%) and the highest values were characterised for the varieties ‘LG50550 CLP’ (2.58–4.54 t/ha) and ‘MAS 804G’ (2.79–4.26 t/ha). With regard to quality indicators, in particular the oil content in seeds, ‘P64LL164’ and ‘SY THEOS’ were dominant, while the protein content was 17.7–17.5% in ‘LG58630’ and 16.7–17.1% in ‘LG58390’. Conclusions. According to the results of the qualification examination on the suitability of the variety for distribution, the investigated varieties are recommended for cultivation in the Steppe and Forest-Steppe zones. The varieties with the highest oil content in seeds were identified as ‘SY THEOS’ (Steppe – 51.4%, Forest-Steppe – 51.6%) and ‘P64LL164’ (Steppe – 50.9%, Forest-Steppe – 52.1%). The highest protein accumulation was observed in variety ‘LG5863’ (Steppe – 17.7%, Forest-Steppe – 17.5%).
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