Evaluation of breeding material on the basis of morphological and cytological characteristics of the reproductive organs of plants of the genus Miscanthus
Keywords:Miscanthus, stamens, pistil, pollen, cytology, reproductive organs
Purpose. To study in vitro the morphological and cytological characteristics of anthers, pollen and pistils of plants of the genus Miscanthus.
Methods. Preparations of pistils, unpollinated seed buds, anthers and pollen, unstained or stained with a solution of carmine (2%) in acetic acid (45%) or methylene blue solution, were examined by light microscopy. Measurements for plants of different Miscanthus species, as well as counting the number of pollen of different diameters, were made in ten replicates.
Results. The morphological
and cytological characteristics of the reproductive organs of M. sinensis, M. sacchariflorus and M. giganteus species were studied. It was found that the flower of this plant is monoecious, containing both stamens and a pistil. The color of the anthers is yellow or pinkish-yellow, their tissues consist of elongated cells 70–100 µm long. The pistil has a two-column ovary with long (2.0–2.8 mm) pinnate stigmas which vary in color from white to bright pink. The shape of the pistil feather is moderately branched; length – 160–300 µm; width – 20–30 µm; alternate position; the number of small branches is 10–15 pcs. The pollen of different Miscanthus species differ in qualitative and quantitative characteristics, in particular in M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus it is characterized by a rounded shape, evenness and uniformity (43–48 µm in diameter), whereas in M. giganteus it is more heterogeneous in size (23–45 µm in diameter). The pollen has a rounded, decorated pore with a diameter of 2.7–4.0 µm.
Conclusions. According to the results of the conducted research, the morphological and cytological characteristics of the reproductive organs of M. sinensis, M. sacchariflorus and M. giganteus, namely: pistils, anthers and pollen, were provided. The data obtained should be taken into account in future breeding for the production of di- and triploid Miscanthus hybrids.
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