Productivity and grain quality of winter triticale varieties (Triticosecale Wittmack el. Camus) under different soil and climatic growing conditions
Keywords:cereals, nutritional value, hydrothermal coefficient, cultivation capacity, protein content, correlation and regression analysis
Purpose. To evaluate the productivity and grain quality of winter triticale varieties grown under different soil and climatic conditions.
Methods. The research process involved laboratory, computational and statistical methods, and analysis and synthesis to draw conclusions.
Results. HTC (IV–X) was found to vary significantly monthly, annually and in general between the research sites. It was found that the yield of winter triticale varieties in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones was 5.3 t/ha. The maximum yield in the Forest-Steppe zone was achieved by the variety ‘MIP Feniks’ (5.9 t/ha), in the Polissia zone by the variety ‘Pamiati Patseky’ (5.8 t/ha). It was found that the protein content of winter triticale varieties for the 2019–2020 research years in the Forest-Steppe zone was on average 12.6% and ranged from 12.2% (‘Liubomyr’) to 13.3% (‘MIP Yatahan’), which according to the classifier corresponded to grain of medium quality and can be used in the confectionery industry. The coefficient of variation (V,%) for this characteristic was 3.5%. In the Polissia zone, the protein content of the varieties averaged 13.6% over the years of research and ranged from 12.9% – medium content (‘MIP Feniks’) to 14.3% – high content (‘MIP Yatahan’). The intrazone variation was low and amounted to 4.0%. Correlation and regression analysis showed that an increase in the active temperature during the vegetation period up to 3203 оС allows an increase in the productivity indicators and in the weight of 1000 grains from 5.6 to 6.1 t/ha and from 46.8 to 53.5 g, respectively; an increase in precipitation during the vegetation period up to 515.1 mm leads to a decrease in the weight of 1000 grains from 45.2 to 38.1 g; with an increase in the amount of active temperatures and precipitation during the vegetation period from 3167.65 to 3202.9 оС and from 413.85 to 515.1 mm, respectively, it is possible to increase the protein content in grain from 12.4 to 13.8%; with an increase in the yield and weight of 1000 grains from 5.8 to 6.1 t/ha and from 51.8 to 53.8 g, the protein content of the grain can be reduced from 13.1 to 12.0%.
Conclusions. Different responses of varieties to zonal growing conditions were observed. A positive influence of the rainfall factor during the growing season on the yield of winter triticale in Forest-Steppe and Polissia (r = 0.66 and 0.34 units) and on the increase of the protein content of grain grown in the Polissia zone (r = 0.56) was revealed.
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