Evaluation of productivity of different varieties of soryz (Sorghum orysoidum)
Keywords:rice grain sorghum, crop capacity, protein content, starch content, bioethanol, grain moisture
Aim. To establish the features of productivity formation (yield, protein and gluten content and estimated yield of bioethanol) of different varieties of soryz.
Methods. Experimental studies were conducted during 2019–2021 at the Experimental Field of the Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beets of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ksaverivka 2, Bila Tserkva District, Kyiv Region). Yields were determined by direct combining in sections, protein and starch content by infrared spectroscopy, and possible bioethanol yield by starch content.
Results. On average, over the years of research, the highest yields were observed in the cultivar ‘Fakel’ – 10.93 t/ha, the lowest – in ‘Helios’ and ‘Saliut’ – 7.97 and 8.82 t/ha, respectively. The yield of other varieties was 9.38–9.82 t/ha, while the stability index, depending on the cultivar, varied from 0.77 to 0.90. The highest protein content in seeds was found in the variety ‘Samaran 6’ (14.0%), the lowest – in ‘Oktan’ (12.7%) and ‘Merkurii’ (12.4%). In other varieties of soryz this figure ranged from 13.1 to 13.9%. The stability index of the protein content was high – 0.91–0.97. It was found that the cultivation of soryz varieties ‘Evropa’, ‘Tytan’, ‘Samaran 6’ and ‘Fakel’ allows to obtain the highest estimated yield of bioethanol – 4027–4630 kg/ha. The lowest indicator was in the variety ‘Helios’ – 2846 kg/ha. For other varieties, this figure was at the level of 3378–3861 kg/ha. It should be noted that the grain of all soryz varieties must be dried after harvest, as its humidity, even in more favorable weather conditions is 16.2–21.4%.
Conclusions. Soryz productivity varies greatly depending on the variety and weather conditions. All varieties provided high yields – 7.97–10.93 t/ha. For the production of food grain with a protein content of 13.1–13.8%, it is recommended to use varieties of ‘Kvarts’, ‘Helios’, ‘Saliut’ and ‘Odeskyi 302’. For the production of food grain (protein share 13.9–14.2%) and obtaining a high yield of bioethanol (3478–5265 l/ha) it is necessary to use varieties ‘Evropa’, ‘Tytan’, ‘Samaran 6’ and ‘Fakel’.
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