The results of the assessment of new varieties of Solanum tuberosum L. according to the main economic and valuable characteristics depending on the soil and climatic zones of cultivation
Keywords:potato, variety, crop capacity, starch content
Purpose. To carry out a comprehensive study and evaluation of new varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) according to the main economic and valuable indicators: yield, resistance to diseases and the content of starch and dry matter.
Methods. The qualification examination of potato varieties for suitability for distribution in Ukraine (PSP) is carried out throughout the territory of Ukraine within the soil and climate zones of the Forest Steppe and Polissia in accordance with the Methodology for the qualification examination of plant varieties for suitability for distribution in Ukraine (General part) and the Methodology for the examination of varieties potato plants and groups of vegetable, melon, spicy-tasty plants for their suitability for distribution in Ukraine.
Results. Economic and valuable characteristics of new potato varieties ‘Acoustic’, ‘Lady Amarilla’, ‘Sensation’, ‘Mia’, ‘Baltic Fire’, included in the State Register of plant varieties suitable for distribution in Ukraine (hereinafter – Register of varieties), were studied. An analysis of the varietal potential of potatoes was carried out based on the results of the qualification examination of the varieties. It was established that the yield of the studied potato varieties in all years of examination was higher in the forest-steppe zone and exceeded the yield obtained in the Polissia zone. In particular, the productivity of the variety ‘Sensation’ by 29%, ‘Mia’ by 20%, ‘Lady Amarilla’ by 16%, ‘Baltic Fire’ by 19%, ‘Acoustic’ by 21%. Varieties ‘Sensation’ (24.3–33.8 t/ha) and ‘Acoustic’ (25.5–30.2 t/ha) produced the highest yield over the years of research. The varieties ‘Lady Amarilla’ and ‘Baltic Fire’ prevailed in terms of quality indicators: the starch content in their tubers was 13.7–15.4% and 13.3–13.9%; dry matter content 22.2–23.2% and 21.5–22.0%, respectively. Disease and pest damage was generally average, with late blight causing the most damage to crops in the Polissia zone.
Conclusions. Based on the results of the qualification examination, five positive expert opinions were prepared for the PSP. All studied varieties are recommended for growing in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Cancer-resistant potato varieties are proposed for introduction in disease foci and use as parental components and obtaining disease-resistant offspring. Cancer-resistant potato varieties are recommended to be grown in areas where the disease is likely to be detected and used in breeding to obtain new cancer-resistant varieties.
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