Variety productivity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. for green pods in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
Keywords:seed weight, yield, protein, sugars, nodulation apparatus
Purpose. To reveal the features of productivity formation of French bean varieties of different ecological and geographical origin in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
Methods. During 2020–2021 six early maturing varieties of beans – ‘Zironka’, ‘Casablanca’ (Ukraine), ‘Lila Königin’ (Germany), ‘Laura’ (Poland), ‘Fruidor’ (France) and ‘Paloma’ (the Netherlands) were studied in the field (Uman, 48°46’N, 30°14’E). Biometric and productivity indicators of plants, as well as the biochemical composition of products (green beans) were analyzed in technical and full maturity of the culture (BBCH 75 and 99).
Results. The dwarf varieties ‘Lila Königin’ and ‘Casablanca’ were identified, which can be used in breeding as a source of this trait. Varieties with high attachment of the lower bean, suitable for mechanized harvesting – ‘Casablanca’, ‘Zironka’, ‘Laura’ and ‘Paloma’ were identified. It was revealed that the most productive varieties were ‘Zironka’, ‘Casablanca’ and ‘Paloma’, the mass of beans in which was in the range of 43.1–86.0 g, and the yield of green beans was 9.39–19.35 t/ha. In terms of seed yield, the varieties ‘Zironka’ turned out to be highly productive – 3.51 t/ha, ‘Casablanca’ – 3.78 t/ha and ‘Lila Königin’ – 2.65 t/ha. Evaluation of the biochemical composition of green beans of French bean did not allow to distinguish varieties by a set of indicators, however, as a source of traits with a high percentage of dry residue stood out variety ‘Paloma’ – 11%; by the share of protein – ‘Fruidor’ – 18.7%; for the share of sugars – ‘Lila Königin’ – 2.60%, for the content of ascorbic acid ‘Fruidor’ – 23.0 mg/100 g and with low content of nitrates – the variety ‘Lila Königin’ – 129.0 mg/kg.
Conclusions. The evaluation of French bean varieties by morphological variability and productivity allowed to recommend ‘Paloma’ and ‘Casablanca’ varieties for use in production. Varieties with improved biochemical parameters that can be used as sources of traits for breeding were identified.
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