Sources of complex resistance of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for adaptive breeding
Keywords:Triticum aestivum L., varieties, drought resistance, heat resistance, pathogens, sources of complex resistance
Purpose. To study the complex resistance of winter wheat collection using productivity index – total weight of all grains in one ear; drought and heat resistances; resistance to pathogens – powdery mildew, brown rust and pyrenophorosis (tan spot). To select plants with complex resistance for breeding programs aimed to create a high-yielding and highly adaptable source material.
Methods. Field, laboratory and statistical.
Results. The winter wheat varieties were divided into 3 groups according to the level of productivity and the way of use. They included 136 varieties, 33% of which were from Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, NAS of Ukraine (Kyiv breeding), 19% from the southern regions of Ukraine (south-Ukrainian breeding), and 42% from the foreign collection (West European breeding). On the basis of productivity, the highest priority in 69% belongs to Kyiv breeding varieties with grain weight within 3.1–4.0 g/ear. South-Ukrainian breeding varieties are of highest drought tolerance at the rank ‘medium-resistant’ – 25.0%, at the rank ‘higher than medium-resistant’ – 17.9% and ‘highly resistant’ – 10.7%. Varieties of Kyiv breeding have the highest percentage at the rank of ‘medium heat resistant’ and the ‘heat resistant’ – 25.5%. According to pathogenic resistance, Western European breeding varieties have the highest percentage of the resistance to powdery mildew and pyrenophorosis at the rank ‘higher than medium resistant’ – 43%. Varieties of Kyiv and south-Ukrainian breeding have the steadily medium resistance to diseases of three pathogens within 53–82 %.
Conclusions. The sources of complex resistance of winter wheat to the unfavorable environmental factors and pathogen diseases (mildew, brown rust and pyrenophorosis) were identified – ‘Natalka’, ‘Pereiaslavka’, ‘Podolianka’, ‘Darynka Kyivska’, ‘Zbruch’, ‘Kyivska ostysta’, ‘Smuhlianka’, ‘Snihurka’ and ‘Favorytka’ varieties. Studied varieties were involved to the breeding programs on creation of highly productive and highly adaptive winter wheat.
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