Inheritance of wheat head productivity elements in F1 Triticum aestivum L. hybrids created on the basis of cultivars carring wheat-rye translocations 1AL.1RS and 1BL.1RS
Keywords:soft winter wheat, variety, hybrids, wheat-rye translocations, elements of the spike productivity, inheritance, heterosis
Purpose. Investigate the inheritance of the elements of productivity of the main ear-head by hybrids of the first generation of soft winter wheat, obtained from crossing varieties that carry wheat-rye translocations (WRT) 1BL.1RS and 1AL.1RS.
Methods. Phenological, biometric, and statistical.
Results. The differentiation of the elements of the crop structure between F1 hybrids was revealed. In 2016, based on the results of the analysis of the main ear length of F1 hybrids overdominance was detected in 26.7% of them, partial positive dominance – in 10.0%; by the number of grains: overdominance – in 13.3%, partial positive dominance – in 10.0%; by weight of grains from the main ear: overdominance – 16.7%, partial positive dominance – 3.3%. In 2017, overdominance along the length of the main ear was determined in 36.7% of the first generation hybrids, partial positive dominance – in 10%; by the number of grains: overdominance – 46.7%, partial positive dominance – 6.7%; by weight of grains from the main ear: over-domination – 40.0%, partial positive dominance – 10%. In terms of breeding ‘Kolumbiia’ / ‘Ekspromt’ (1AL.1RS / 1AL.1RS) crossing was the most valuable by the combination of the length of the main ear and the grain weight of it, heterosis was observed in 2016 and 2017; ‘Svitanok Myronivskyi’ / ‘Lehenda Myronivska’ (1BL.1RS / 1BL.1RS) showed good results in combination of the number and weight of grains from the main ear. The combination of two translocations in the wheat genotype can act as an auxiliary genetic background that increases the adaptive properties of the genotype to stressful environmental conditions and provides a high and constant level of grain productivity. Conclusions. A different degree of inheritance of grain product elements in wheat hybrids F1 was revealed. Hybrid combinations F1, which provided overdominance and partial positive dominance of the length, number and weight of grains of the main ear from crossing carrier cultivars carring WRT were identified. In terms of breeding ‘Kolumbiia’ / ‘Ekspromt’ (1AL.1RS / 1AL.1RS) crossing was the most valuable by the combination of the main ear length and the weight of grains, ‘Svitanok Myronivskyi’ / ‘Lehenda Myronivska’ (1BL.1RS / 1BL.1RS) – in combination of the number and weight of grains from the main ear.
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